Employee Retirement Income Security Act - ERISA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 18

29 USC CHAPTER 18 - EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM

TITLE 29 - LABOR
CHAPTER 18 - EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT RIGHTS

SUBTITLE A - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec.
1001. Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001a.. Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001b.. Findings and declaration of policy.
1002. Definitions.
1003. Coverage.

SUBTITLE B - REGULATORY PROVISIONS

PART 1 - REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE
1021. Duty of disclosure and reporting.
1022. Summary plan description.
1023. Annual reports.
1024. Filing and furnishing of information.
1025. Reporting of participant's benefit rights.
1026. Reports made public information.
1027. Retention of records.
1028. Reliance on administrative interpretations.
1029. Forms.
1030. Alternative methods of compliance.
1031. Repeal and effective date.

PART 2 - PARTICIPATION AND VESTING
1051. Coverage.
1052. Minimum participation standards.
1053. Minimum vesting standards.
1054. Benefit accrual requirements.
1055. Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement survivor annuity.
1056. Form and payment of benefits.
1057. Temporary variances from certain vesting requirements.
1058. Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets.
1059. Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
1060. Multiple employer plans.
1061. Effective dates.

PART 3 - FUNDING
1081. Coverage.
1082. Minimum funding standards.
1083. Variance from minimum funding standard.
1084. Extension of amortization periods.
1085. Alternative minimum funding standard.
1085a.. Security for waivers of minimum funding standard and extensions of amortization period.
1085b.. Security required upon adoption of plan amendment resulting in significant underfunding.
1086. Effective dates.

PART 4 - FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY
1101. Coverage.
1102. Establishment of plan.
1103. Establishment of trust.
1104. Fiduciary duties.
1105. Liability for breach of co-fiduciary.
1106. Prohibited transactions.
1107. Limitation with respect to acquisition and holding of employer securities and employer real property by certain plans.
1108. Exemptions from prohibited transactions.
1109. Liability for breach of fiduciary duty.
1110. Exculpatory provisions; insurance.
1111. Persons prohibited from holding certain positions.
1112. Bonding.
1113. Limitation of actions.
1114. Effective date.

PART 5 - ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT
1131. Criminal penalties.
1132. Civil enforcement.
1133. Claims procedure.
1134. Investigative authority.
1135. Regulations.
1136. Coordination and responsibility of agencies enforcing this subchapter and related Federal laws.
1137. Administration.
1138. Appropriations.
1139. Separability.
1140. Interference with protected rights.
1141. Coercive interference.
1142. Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Pension Benefit Plans.
1143. Research, studies, and reports.
1143a.. Studies by Comptroller General.
1144. Other laws.
1144a.. Clarification of church welfare plan status under State insurance law.
1145. Delinquent contributions.
1146. Outreach to promote retirement income savings.
1147. National Summit on Retirement Savings.
1148. Authority to postpone certain deadlines by reason of Presidentially declared disaster or terroristic or military actions.

PART 6 - CONTINUATION COVERAGE AND ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS
1161. Plans must provide continuation coverage to certain individuals.
1162. Continuation coverage.
1163. Qualifying event.
1164. Applicable premium.
1165. Election.
1166. Notice requirements.
1167. Definitions and special rules.
1168. Regulations.
1169. Additional standards for group health plans.
PART 7 - GROUP HEALTH PLAN REQUIREMENTS

SUBPART A - REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO PORTABILITY, ACCESS, AND RENEWABILITY
1181. Increased portability through limitation on preexisting condition exclusions.
1182. Prohibiting discrimination against individual participants and beneficiaries based on health status.
1183. Guaranteed renewability in multiemployer plans and multiple employer welfare arrangements.

SUBPART B - OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1185. Standards relating to benefits for mothers and newborns.
1185a.. Parity in application of certain limits to mental health benefits.
1185b.. Required coverage for reconstructive surgery following mastectomies.

SUBPART C - GENERAL PROVISIONS
1191. Preemption; State flexibility; construction.
1191a.. Special rules relating to group health plans.
1191b.. Definitions.
1191c.. Regulations.

SUBCHAPTER II - JURISDICTION, ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT; JOINT PENSION TASK FORCE, ETC.

SUBTITLE A - JURISDICTION, ADMINISTRATION, AND ENFORCEMENT
1201. Procedures in connection with the issuance of certain determination letters by the Secretary of the Treasury covering qualifications under Internal Revenue Code.
1202. Procedures with respect to continued compliance with Internal Revenue requirements relating to participation, vesting, and funding standards.
1203. Procedures in connection with prohibited transactions.
1204. Coordination between the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Labor.

SUBTITLE B - JOINT PENSION, PROFIT-SHARING, AND EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PLAN TASK FORCE; STUDIES

PART 1 - JOINT PENSION, PROFIT-SHARING, AND EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PLAN TASK FORCE
1221. Establishment.
1222. Duties.

PART 2 - OTHER STUDIES
1231. Congressional study.
1232. Protection for employees under Federal procurement, construction, and research contracts and grants.

SUBTITLE C - ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES
1241. Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries.
1242. Enrollment by Board; standards and qualifications; suspension or termination of enrollment.

SUBCHAPTER III - PLAN TERMINATION INSURANCE

SUBTITLE A - PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION
1301. Definitions.
1302. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
1303. Operation of corporation.
1304. Repealed.
1305. Pension benefit guaranty funds.
1306. Premium rates.
1307. Payment of premiums.
1308. Annual report by the corporation.
1309. Portability assistance.
1310. Authority to require certain information.
1311. Notice to participants.

SUBTITLE B - COVERAGE
1321. Coverage.
1322. Single-employer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322a.. Multiemployer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322b.. Aggregate limit on benefits guaranteed; criteria applicable.
1323. Plan fiduciaries.

SUBTITLE C - TERMINATIONS
1341. Termination of single-employer plans.
1341a.. Termination of multiemployer plans.
1342. Institution of termination proceedings by the corporation.
1343. Reportable events.
1344. Allocation of assets.
1345. Recapture of payments.
1346. Reports to trustee.
1347. Restoration of plans.
1348. Termination date.
1349. Repealed.
1350. Missing participants.

SUBTITLE D - LIABILITY
1361. Amounts payable by corporation.
1362. Liability for termination of single-employer plans under a distress termination or a termination by corporation.
1363. Liability of substantial employer for withdrawal from single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1364. Liability on termination of single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1365. Annual report of plan administrator.
1366. Annual notification to substantial employers.
1367. Recovery of liability for plan termination.
1368. Lien for liability.
1369. Treatment of transactions to evade liability; effect of corporate reorganization.
1370. Enforcement authority relating to terminations of single-employer plans.
1371. Penalty for failure to timely provide required information.

SUBTITLE E - SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS

PART 1 - EMPLOYER WITHDRAWALS
1381. Withdrawal liability established; criteria and definitions.
1382. Determination and collection of liability; notification of employer.
1383. Complete withdrawal.
1384. Sale of assets.
1385. Partial withdrawals.
1386. Adjustment for partial withdrawal; determination of amount; reduction for partial withdrawal liability; procedures applicable.
1387. Reduction or waiver of complete withdrawal liability; procedures and standards applicable.
1388. Reduction of partial withdrawal liability.
1389. De minimis rule.
1390. Nonapplicability of withdrawal liability for certain temporary contribution obligation periods; exception.
1391. Methods for computing withdrawal liability.
1392. Obligation to contribute.
1393. Actuarial assumptions.
1394. Application of plan amendments; exception.
1395. Plan notification to corporation of potentially significant withdrawals.
1396. Special rules for plans under section 404(c) of title 26.
1397. Application of part in case of certain pre-1980 withdrawals; adjustment of covered plan.
1398. Withdrawal not to occur because of change in business form or suspension of contributions during labor dispute.
1399. Notice, collection, etc., of withdrawal liability.
1400. Approval of amendments.
1401. Resolution of disputes.
1402. Reimbursements for uncollectible withdrawal liability.
1403. Withdrawal liability payment fund.
1404. Alternative method of withdrawal liability payments.
1405. Limitation on withdrawal liability.

PART 2 - MERGER OR TRANSFER OF PLAN ASSETS OR LIABILITIES
1411. Mergers and transfers between multiemployer plans.
1412. Transfers between a multiemployer plan and a single-employer plan.
1413. Partition.
1414. Asset transfer rules.

1415. Transfers pursuant to change in bargaining representative.

PART 3 - REORGANIZATION; MINIMUM CONTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS
1421. Reorganization status.
1422. Notice of reorganization and funding requirements.
1423. Minimum contribution requirement.
1424. Overburden credit against minimum contribution requirement.
1425. Adjustments in accrued benefits.
1426. Insolvent plans.

PART 4 - FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
1431. Assistance by corporation.
PART 5 - BENEFITS AFTER TERMINATION

1441. Benefits under certain terminated plans.

PART 6 - ENFORCEMENT
1451. Civil actions.
1452. Penalty for failure to provide notice.
1453. Election of plan status.

SUBTITLE F - TRANSITION RULES AND EFFECTIVE DATES
1461. Effective date; special rules.

SUBCHAPTER I - PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT RIGHTS

SUBTITLE A - GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 1001. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

    (a) Benefit plans as affecting interstate commerce and the Federal taxing power
The Congress finds that the growth in size, scope, and numbers of employee benefit plans in recent years has been rapid and substantial; that the operational scope and economic impact of such plans is increasingly interstate; that the continued well-being and security of millions of employees and their dependents are directly affected by these plans; that they are affected with a national public interest; that they have become an important factor affecting the stability of employment and the successful development of industrial relations; that they have become an important factor in commerce because of the interstate character of their activities, and of the activities of their participants, and the employers, employee organizations, and other entities by which they are established or maintained; that a large volume of the activities of such plans are carried on by means of the mails and instrumentalities of interstate commerce; that owing to the lack of employee information and adequate safeguards concerning their operation, it is desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, and to provide for the general welfare and the free flow of commerce, that disclosure be made and safeguards be provided with respect to the establishment, operation, and administration of such plans; that they substantially affect the revenues of the United States because they are afforded preferential Federal tax treatment; that despite the enormous growth in such plans many employees with long years of employment are losing anticipated retirement benefits owing to the lack of vesting provisions in such plans; that owing to the inadequacy of current minimum standards, the soundness and stability of plans with respect to adequate funds to pay promised benefits may be endangered; that owing to the termination of plans before requisite funds have been accumulated, employees and their beneficiaries have been deprived of anticipated benefits; and that it is therefore desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, for the protection of the revenue of the United States, and to provide for the free flow of commerce, that minimum standards be provided assuring the equitable character of such plans and their financial soundness.
    (b) Protection of interstate commerce and beneficiaries by requiring disclosure and reporting, setting standards of conduct, etc., for fiduciaries
It is hereby declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce and the interests of participants in employee benefit plans and their beneficiaries, by requiring the disclosure and reporting to participants and beneficiaries of financial and other information with respect thereto, by establishing standards of conduct, responsibility, and obligation for fiduciaries of employee benefit plans, and by providing for appropriate remedies, sanctions, and ready access to the Federal courts.
    (c) Protection of interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and beneficiaries by vesting of accrued benefits, setting minimum standards of funding, requiring termination insurance
It is hereby further declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and the interests of participants in private pension plans and their beneficiaries by improving the equitable character and the soundness of such plans by requiring them to vest the accrued benefits of employees with significant periods of service, to meet minimum standards of funding, and by requiring plan termination insurance.

Sec. 1001a. Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy

    (a) Effects of multiemployer pension plans
The Congress finds that -
        (1) multiemployer pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national public interest;
        (2) multiemployer pension plans have accounted for a substantial portion of the increase in private pension plan coverage over the past three decades;
        (3) the continued well-being and security of millions of employees, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by multiemployer pension plans; and
        (4)(A) withdrawals of contributing employers from a multiemployer pension plan frequently result in substantially increased funding obligations for employers who continue to contribute to the plan, adversely affecting the plan, its participants and beneficiaries, and labor-management relations, and
        (B) in a declining industry, the incidence of employer withdrawals is higher and the adverse effects described in subparagraph (A) are exacerbated.
    (b) Modification of multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions and replacement of program
The Congress further finds that -
        (1) it is desirable to modify the current multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions in order to increase the likelihood of protecting plan participants against benefit losses; and
        (2) it is desirable to replace the termination insurance program for multiemployer pension plans with an insolvency-based benefit protection program that will enhance the financial soundness of such plans, place primary emphasis on plan continuation, and contain program costs within reasonable limits.
    (c) Policy
It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act -
        (1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce,
        (2) to alleviate certain problems which tend to discourage the maintenance and growth of multiemployer pension plans,
        (3) to provide reasonable protection for the interests of participants and beneficiaries of financially distressed multiemployer pension plans, and
        (4) to provide a financially self-sufficient program for the guarantee of employee benefits under multiemployer plans.

Sec. 1001b. Findings and declaration of policy

    (a) Findings
The Congress finds that -
        (1) single-employer defined benefit pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national interest;
        (2) the continued well-being and retirement income security of millions of workers, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by such plans;
        (3) the existence of a sound termination insurance system is fundamental to the retirement income security of participants and beneficiaries of such plans; and
        (4) the current termination insurance system in some instances encourages employers to terminate pension plans, evade their obligations to pay benefits, and shift unfunded pension liabilities onto the termination insurance system and the other premium-payers.
    (b) Additional findings
The Congress further finds that modification of the current termination insurance system and an increase in the insurance premium for single-employer defined benefit pension plans -
        (1) is desirable to increase the likelihood that full benefits will be paid to participants and beneficiaries of such plans;
        (2) is desirable to provide for the transfer of liabilities to the termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;
        (3) is necessary to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and
        (4) is necessary to finance properly current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system.
    (c) Declaration of policy
It is hereby declared to be the policy of this title -
        (1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce;
        (2) to encourage the maintenance and growth of single-employer defined benefit pension plans;
        (3) to increase the likelihood that participants and beneficiaries under single-employer defined benefit pension plans will receive their full benefits;
        (4) to provide for the transfer of unfunded pension liabilities onto the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;
        (5) to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and
        (6) to assure the prudent financing of current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system by increasing termination insurance premiums.

Sec. 1002. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter:
      (1) The terms "employee welfare benefit plan" and "welfare plan" mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that such plan, fund, or program was established or is maintained for the purpose of providing for its participants or their beneficiaries, through the purchase of insurance or otherwise, (A) medical, surgical, or hospital care or benefits, or benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability, death or unemployment, or vacation benefits, apprenticeship or other training programs, or day care centers, scholarship funds, or prepaid legal services, or (B) any benefit described in section 186(c) of this title (other than pensions on retirement or death, and insurance to provide such pensions).
      (2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the terms "employee pension benefit plan" and "pension plan" mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that by its express terms or as a result of surrounding circumstances such plan, fund, or program -
        (i) provides retirement income to employees, or
        (ii) results in a deferral of income by employees for periods extending to the termination of covered employment or beyond, regardless of the method of calculating the contributions made to the plan, the method of calculating the benefits under the plan or the method of distributing benefits from the plan.
      (B) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe rules consistent with the standards and purposes of this chapter providing one or more exempt categories under which -
        (i) severance pay arrangements, and
        (ii) supplemental retirement income payments, under which the pension benefits of retirees or their beneficiaries are supplemented to take into account some portion or all of the increases in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement, shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as welfare plans rather than pension plans. In the case of any arrangement or payment a principal effect of which is the evasion of the standards or purposes of this chapter applicable to pension plans, such arrangement or payment shall be treated as a pension plan.
      (3) The term "employee benefit plan" or "plan" means an employee welfare benefit plan or an employee pension benefit plan or a plan which is both an employee welfare benefit plan and an employee pension benefit plan.
      (4) The term "employee organization" means any labor union or any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee, association, group, or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning an employee benefit plan, or other matters incidental to employment relationships; or any employees' beneficiary association organized for the purpose in whole or in part, of establishing such a plan.
      (5) The term "employer" means any person acting directly as an employer, or indirectly in the interest of an employer, in relation to an employee benefit plan; and includes a group or association of employers acting for an employer in such capacity.
      (6) The term "employee" means any individual employed by an employer.
      (7) The term "participant" means any employee or former employee of an employer, or any member or former member of an employee organization, who is or may become eligible to receive a benefit of any type from an employee benefit plan which covers employees of such employer or members of such organization, or whose beneficiaries may be eligible to receive any such benefit.
      (8) The term "beneficiary" means a person designated by a participant, or by the terms of an employee benefit plan, who is or may become entitled to a benefit thereunder.
      (9) The term "person" means an individual, partnership, joint venture, corporation, mutual company, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization, association, or employee organization.
      (10) The term "State" includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, and the Canal Zone. The term "United States" when used in the geographic sense means the States and the Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331-1343).
      (11) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication between any State and any place outside thereof.
      (12) The term "industry or activity affecting commerce" means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or obstruct commerce or the free flow of commerce, and includes any activity or industry "affecting commerce" within the meaning of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 [29 U.S.C. 141 et seq.], or the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.].
      (13) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Labor.
      (14) The term "party in interest" means, as to an employee benefit plan -
        (A) any fiduciary (including, but not limited to, any administrator, officer, trustee, or custodian), counsel, or employee of such employee benefit plan;
        (B) a person providing services to such plan;
        (C) an employer any of whose employees are covered by such plan;
        (D) an employee organization any of whose members are covered by such plan;
        (E) an owner, direct or indirect, of 50 percent or more of -
          (i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of a corporation.(!1)
          (ii) the capital interest or the profits interest of a partnership, or
          (iii) the beneficial interest of a trust or unincorporated enterprise, which is an employer or an employee organization described in subparagraph (C) or (D);
        (F) a relative (as defined in paragraph (15)) of any individual described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E);
        (G) a corporation, partnership, or trust or estate of which (or in which) 50 percent or more of -
          (i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such corporation,
          (ii) the capital interest or profits interest of such partnership, or
          (iii) the beneficial interest of such trust or estate, is owned directly or indirectly, or held by persons described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);
        (H) an employee, officer, director (or an individual having powers or responsibilities similar to those of officers or directors), or a 10 percent or more shareholder directly or indirectly, of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D),
      (E), or (G), or of the employee benefit plan; or
        (I) a 10 percent or more (directly or indirectly in capital or profits) partner or joint venturer of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (G).
The Secretary, after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation prescribe a percentage lower than 50 percent for subparagraph (E) and (G) and lower than 10 percent for subparagraph (H) or (I). The Secretary may prescribe regulations for determining the ownership (direct or indirect) of profits and beneficial interests, and the manner in which indirect stockholdings are taken into account. Any person who is a party in interest with respect to a plan to which a trust described in section 501(c)(22) of title 26 is permitted to make payments under section 1403 of this title shall be treated as a party in interest with respect to such trust.
      (15) The term "relative" means a spouse, ancestor, lineal descendant, or spouse of a lineal descendant.
      (16)(A) The term "administrator" means -
        (i) the person specifically so designated by the terms of the instrument under which the plan is operated;
        (ii) if an administrator is not so designated, the plan sponsor; or
        (iii) in the case of a plan for which an administrator is not designated and a plan sponsor cannot be identified, such other person as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

      (B) The term "plan sponsor" means (i) the employer in the case of an employee benefit plan established or maintained by a single employer, (ii) the employee organization in the case of a plan established or maintained by an employee organization, or (iii) in the case of a plan established or maintained by two or more employers or jointly by one or more employers and one or more employee organizations, the association, committee, joint board of trustees, or other similar group of representatives of the parties who establish or maintain the plan.
      (17) The term "separate account" means an account established or maintained by an insurance company under which income, gains, and losses, whether or not realized, from assets allocated to such account, are, in accordance with the applicable contract, credited to or charged against such account without regard to other income, gains, or losses of the insurance company.
      (18) The term "adequate consideration" when used in part 4 of subtitle B of this subchapter means (A) in the case of a security for which there is a generally recognized market, either (i) the price of the security prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered under section 78f of title 15, or (ii) if the security is not traded on such a national securities exchange, a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the security as established by the current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer and of any party in interest; and (B) in the case of an asset other than a security for which there is a generally recognized market, the fair market value of the asset as determined in good faith by the trustee or named fiduciary pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
      (19) The term "nonforfeitable" when used with respect to a pension benefit or right means a claim obtained by a participant or his beneficiary to that part of an immediate or deferred benefit under a pension plan which arises from the participant's service, which is unconditional, and which is legally enforceable against the plan. For purposes of this paragraph, a right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable merely because the plan contains a provision described in section 1053(a)(3) of this title.
      (20) The term "security" has the same meaning as such term has under section 77b(1) (!2) of title 15.

      (21)(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), a person is a fiduciary with respect to a plan to the extent (i) he exercises any discretionary authority or discretionary control respecting management of such plan or exercises any authority or control respecting management or disposition of its assets, (ii) he renders investment advice for a fee or other compensation, direct or indirect, with respect to any moneys or other property of such plan, or has any authority or responsibility to do so, or (iii) he has any discretionary authority or discretionary responsibility in the administration of such plan. Such term includes any person designated under section 1105(c)(1)(B) of this title.
      (B) If any money or other property of an employee benefit plan is invested in securities issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.], such investment shall not by itself cause such investment company or such investment company's investment adviser or principal underwriter to be deemed to be a fiduciary or a party in interest as those terms are defined in this subchapter, except insofar as such investment company or its investment adviser or principal underwriter acts in connection with an employee benefit plan covering employees of the investment company, the investment adviser, or its principal underwriter. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall limit the duties imposed on such investment company, investment adviser, or principal underwriter by any other law.
      (22) The term "normal retirement benefit" means the greater of the early retirement benefit under the plan, or the benefit under the plan commencing at normal retirement age. The normal retirement benefit shall be determined without regard to -
        (A) medical benefits, and
        (B) disability benefits not in excess of the qualified disability benefit.

For purposes of this paragraph, a qualified disability benefit is a disability benefit provided by a plan which does not exceed the benefit which would be provided for the participant if he separated from the service at normal retirement age. For purposes of this paragraph, the early retirement benefit under a plan shall be determined without regard to any benefit under the plan which the Secretary of the Treasury finds to be a benefit described in section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title.
      (23) The term "accrued benefit" means -
        (A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the individual's accrued benefit determined under the plan and, except as provided in section 1054(c)(3) of this title, expressed in the form of an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, or
        (B) in the case of a plan which is an individual account plan, the balance of the individual's account.

The accrued benefit of an employee shall not be less than the amount determined under section 1054(c)(2)(B) of this title with respect to the employee's accumulated contribution.
      (24) The term "normal retirement age" means the earlier of -
        (A) the time a plan participant attains normal retirement age under the plan, or
        (B) the later of -
          (i) the time a plan participant attains age 65, or
          (ii) the 5th anniversary of the time a plan participant commenced participation in the plan.

      (25) The term "vested liabilities" means the present value of the immediate or deferred benefits available at normal retirement age for participants and their beneficiaries which are nonforfeitable.
      (26) The term "current value" means fair market value where available and otherwise the fair value as determined in good faith by a trustee or a named fiduciary (as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title) pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, assuming an orderly liquidation at the time of such determination.
      (27) The term "present value", with respect to a liability, means the value adjusted to reflect anticipated events. Such adjustments shall conform to such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.
      (28) The term "normal service cost" or "normal cost" means the annual cost of future pension benefits and administrative expenses assigned, under an actuarial cost method, to years subsequent to a particular valuation date of a pension plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.
      (29) The term "accrued liability" means the excess of the present value, as of a particular valuation date of a pension plan, of the projected future benefit costs and administrative expenses for all plan participants and beneficiaries over the present value of future contributions for the normal cost of all applicable plan participants and beneficiaries. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.
      (30) The term "unfunded accrued liability" means the excess of the accrued liability, under an actuarial cost method which so provides, over the present value of the assets of a pension plan.
The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.
      (31) The term "advance funding actuarial cost method" or "actuarial cost method" means a recognized actuarial technique utilized for establishing the amount and incidence of the annual actuarial cost of pension plan benefits and expenses. Acceptable actuarial cost methods shall include the accrued benefit cost method (unit credit method), the entry age normal cost method, the individual level premium cost method, the aggregate cost method, the attained age normal cost method, and the frozen initial liability cost method. The terminal funding cost method and the current funding (pay-as-you-go) cost method are not acceptable actuarial cost methods. The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations to further define acceptable actuarial cost methods.
      (32) The term "governmental plan" means a plan established or maintained for its employees by the Government of the United States, by the government of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing. The term "governmental plan" also includes any plan to which the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935, or 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.] applies, and which is financed by contributions required under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation under the provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.].
      (33)(A) The term "church plan" means a plan established and maintained (to the extent required in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B)) for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26.
      (B) The term "church plan" does not include a plan -
        (i) which is established and maintained primarily for the benefit of employees (or their beneficiaries) of such church or convention or association of churches who are employed in connection with one or more unrelated trades or businesses (within the meaning of section 513 of title 26), or
        (ii) if less than substantially all of the individuals included in the plan are individuals described in subparagraph (A) or in clause (ii) of subparagraph (C) (or their beneficiaries).

      (C) For purposes of this paragraph -
        (i) A plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches includes a plan maintained by an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, the principal purpose or function of which is the administration or funding of a plan or program for the provision of retirement benefits or welfare benefits, or both, for the employees of a church or a convention or association of churches, if such organization is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches.
        (ii) The term employee of a church or a convention or association of churches includes -
          (I) a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, regardless of the source of his compensation;
          (II) an employee of an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches; and
          (III) an individual described in clause (v).

        (iii) A church or a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 shall be deemed the employer of any individual included as an employee under clause (ii).
        (iv) An organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, is associated with a church or a convention or association of churches if it shares common religious bonds and convictions with that church or convention or association of churches.
        (v) If an employee who is included in a church plan separates from the service of a church or a convention or association of churches or an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches, the church plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of this paragraph merely because the plan -
          (I) retains the employee's accrued benefit or account for the payment of benefits to the employee or his beneficiaries pursuant to the terms of the plan; or
          (II) receives contributions on the employee's behalf after the employee's separation from such service, but only for a period of 5 years after such separation, unless the employee is disabled (within the meaning of the disability provisions of the church plan or, if there are no such provisions in the church plan, within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) of title 26) at the time of such separation from service.

      (D)(i) If a plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 fails to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph and corrects its failure to meet such requirements within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph for the year in which the correction was made and for all prior years.
      (ii) If a correction is not made within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of this paragraph beginning with the date on which the earliest failure to meet one or more of such requirements occurred.
      (iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "correction period" means -
        (I) the period ending 270 days after the date of mailing by the Secretary of the Treasury of a notice of default with respect to the plan's failure to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph; or
        (II) any period set by a court of competent jurisdiction after a final determination that the plan fails to meet such requirements, or, if the court does not specify such period, any reasonable period determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of all the facts and circumstances, but in any event not less than 270 days after the determination has become final; or
        (III) any additional period which the Secretary of the Treasury determines is reasonable or necessary for the correction of the default, whichever has the latest ending date.
      (34) The term "individual account plan" or "defined contribution plan" means a pension plan which provides for an individual account for each participant and for benefits based solely upon the amount contributed to the participant's account, and any income, expenses, gains and losses, and any forfeitures of accounts of other participants which may be allocated to such participant's account.
      (35) The term "defined benefit plan" means a pension plan other than an individual account plan; except that a pension plan which is not an individual account plan and which provides a benefit derived from employer contributions which is based partly on the balance of the separate account of a participant -
        (A) for the purposes of section 1052 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan, and
        (B) for the purposes of paragraph (23) of this section and section 1054 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan to the extent benefits are based upon the separate account of a participant and as a defined benefit plan with respect to the remaining portion of benefits under the plan.

      (36) The term "excess benefit plan" means a plan maintained by an employer solely for the purpose of providing benefits for certain employees in excess of the limitations on contributions and benefits imposed by section 415 of title 26 on plans to which that section applies without regard to whether the plan is funded. To the extent that a separable part of a plan (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) maintained by an employer is maintained for such purpose, that part shall be treated as a separate plan which is an excess benefit plan.
      (37)(A) The term "multiemployer plan" means a plan -
        (i) to which more than one employer is required to contribute,
        (ii) which is maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between one or more employee organizations and more than one employer, and
        (iii) which satisfies such other requirements as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.

      (B) For purposes of this paragraph, all trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) which are under common control within the meaning of section 1301(b)(1) of this title are considered a single employer.
      (C) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a plan is a multiemployer plan on and after its termination date if the plan was a multiemployer plan under this paragraph for the plan year preceding its termination date.
      (D) For purposes of this subchapter, notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, for any plan year which began before September 26, 1980, the term "multiemployer plan" means a plan described in this paragraph (37) as in effect immediately before such date.
      (E) Within one year after September 26, 1980, a multiemployer plan may irrevocably elect, pursuant to procedures established by the corporation and subject to the provisions of sections 1453(b) and (c) of this title, that the plan shall not be treated as a multiemployer plan for all purposes under this chapter or the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 if for each of the last 3 plan years ending prior to the effective date of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 -
        (i) the plan was not a multiemployer plan because the plan was not a plan described in subparagraph (A)(iii) of this paragraph and section 414(f)(1)(C) of title 26 (as such provisions were in effect on the day before September 26, 1980); and
        (ii) the plan had been identified as a plan that was not a multiemployer plan in substantially all its filings with the corporation, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of the Treasury.

      (F)(i) For purposes of this subchapter a qualified football coaches plan -
        (I) shall be treated as a multiemployer plan to the extent not inconsistent with the purposes of this subparagraph; and
        (II) notwithstanding section 401(k)(4)(B) of title 26, may include a qualified cash and deferred arrangement.

      (ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "qualified football coaches plan" means any defined contribution plan which is established and maintained by an organization -
        (I) which is described in section 501(c) of title 26;
        (II) the membership of which consists entirely of individuals who primarily coach football as full-time employees of 4-year colleges or universities described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of title 26; and
        (III) which was in existence on September 18, 1986.

      (38) The term "investment manager" means any fiduciary (other than a trustee or named fiduciary, as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title) -
        (A) who has the power to manage, acquire, or dispose of any asset of a plan;
        (B) who (i) is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b-1 et seq.]; (ii) is not registered as an investment adviser under such Act by reason of paragraph (1) of section 203A(a) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 80b-3a(a)], is registered as an investment adviser under the laws of the State (referred to in such paragraph (1)) in which it maintains its principal office and place of business, and, at the time the fiduciary last filed the registration form most recently filed by the fiduciary with such State in order to maintain the fiduciary's registration under the laws of such State, also filed a copy of such form with the Secretary; (iii) is a bank, as defined in that Act; or (iv) is an insurance company qualified to perform services described in subparagraph (A) under the laws of more than one State; and
        (C) has acknowledged in writing that he is a fiduciary with respect to the plan.

      (39) The terms "plan year" and "fiscal year of the plan" mean, with respect to a plan, the calendar, policy, or fiscal year on which the records of the plan are kept.
      (40)(A) The term "multiple employer welfare arrangement" means an employee welfare benefit plan, or any other arrangement (other than an employee welfare benefit plan), which is established or maintained for the purpose of offering or providing any benefit described in paragraph (1) to the employees of two or more employers (including one or more self-employed individuals), or to their beneficiaries, except that such term does not include any such plan or other arrangement which is established or maintained -

        (i) under or pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements,
        (ii) by a rural electric cooperative, or
        (iii) by a rural telephone cooperative association.

      (B) For purposes of this paragraph -
        (i) two or more trades or businesses, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed a single employer if such trades or businesses are within the same control group,
        (ii) the term "control group" means a group of trades or businesses under common control,
        (iii) the determination of whether a trade or business is under "common control" with another trade or business shall be determined under regulations of the Secretary applying principles similar to the principles applied in determining whether employees of two or more trades or businesses are treated as employed by a single employer under section 1301(b) of this title, except that, for purposes of this paragraph, common control shall not be based on an interest of less than 25 percent,
        (iv) the term "rural electric cooperative" means -
          (I) any organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and which is engaged primarily in providing electric service on a mutual or cooperative basis, and
          (II) any organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations described in subclause (I), and

        (v) the term "rural telephone cooperative association" means an organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations engaged primarily in providing telephone service to rural areas of the United States on a mutual, cooperative, or other basis.

      (41) (!3) Single-employer plan. - The term "single-employer plan" means an employee benefit plan other than a multiemployer plan.

      (41) (!3) The term "single-employer plan" means a plan which is not a multiemployer plan.

    (!1) So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

    (!2) See References in Text note below.

    (!3) So in original. Two pars. (41) have been enacted.

Sec. 1003. Coverage

    (a) In general
Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c) of this section and in sections 1051, 1081, and 1101 of this title, this subchapter shall apply to any employee benefit plan if it is established or maintained -
        (1) by any employer engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or
        (2) by any employee organization or organizations representing employees engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or
        (3) by both.
    (b) Exceptions for certain plans
The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any employee benefit plan if -
        (1) such plan is a governmental plan (as defined in section 1002(32) of this title);
        (2) such plan is a church plan (as defined in section 1002(33) of this title) with respect to which no election has been made under section 410(d) of title 26;
        (3) such plan is maintained solely for the purpose of complying with applicable workmen's compensation laws or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws;
        (4) such plan is maintained outside of the United States primarily for the benefit of persons substantially all of whom are nonresident aliens; or
        (5) such plan is an excess benefit plan (as defined in section 1002(36) of this title) and is unfunded.

The provisions of part 7 of subtitle B of this subchapter shall not apply to a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) solely by reason of health insurance coverage (as defined in section 1191b(b)(1) of this title) provided by such issuer in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) if the provisions of this subchapter do not apply to such group health plan.
    (c) Voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities
If a pension plan allows an employee to elect to make voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities as provided in section 408(q) of title 26, such accounts and annuities (and contributions thereto) shall not be treated as part of such plan
    (or as a separate pension plan) for purposes of any provision of this subchapter other than section 1103(c), 1104, or 1105 of this title (relating to exclusive benefit, and fiduciary and co-fiduciary responsibilities) and part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter (!1) (relating to administration and enforcement). Such provisions shall apply to such accounts and annuities in a manner similar to their application to a simplified employee pension under section 408(k) of title 26.

    (!1) See References in Text note below.

SUBTITLE B - REGULATORY PROVISIONS
PART 1 - REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE

Sec. 1021. Duty of disclosure and reporting

    (a) Summary plan description and information to be furnished to participants and beneficiaries
The administrator of each employee benefit plan shall cause to be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title to each participant covered under the plan and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan -
        (1) a summary plan description described in section 1022(a)(1)
      (!1) of this title; and

        (2) the information described in sections 1024(b)(3) and 1025(a) and (c) of this title.
    (b) Reports to be filed with Secretary of Labor
The administrator shall, in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, file with the Secretary -
        (1) the annual report containing the information required by section 1023 of this title; and
        (2) terminal and supplementary reports as required by subsection (c) of this section.
    (c) Terminal and supplementary reports
      (1) Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan which is winding up its affairs (without regard to the number of participants remaining in the plan) shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, file such terminal reports as the Secretary may consider necessary. A copy of such report shall also be filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
      (2) The Secretary may require terminal reports to be filed with regard to any employee welfare benefit plan which is winding up its affairs in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
      (3) The Secretary may require that a plan described in paragraph
    (1) or (2) file a supplementary or terminal report with the annual report in the year such plan is terminated and that a copy of such supplementary or terminal report in the case of a plan described in paragraph (1) be also filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
    (d) Notice of failure to meet minimum funding standards
      (1) In general
If an employer maintaining a plan other than a multiemployer plan fails to make a required installment or other payment required to meet the minimum funding standard under section 1082 of this title to a plan before the 60th day following the due date for such installment or other payment, the employer shall notify each participant and beneficiary (including an alternate payee as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) of such plan of such failure. Such notice shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe.
      (2) Subsection not to apply if waiver pending
This subsection shall not apply to any failure if the employer has filed a waiver request under section 1083 of this title with respect to the plan year to which the required installment relates, except that if the waiver request is denied, notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided within 60 days after the date of such denial.
      (3) Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the terms "required installment" and "due date" have the same meanings given such terms by section 1082(e) of this title.
    (e) Notice of transfer of excess pension assets to health benefits accounts
      (1) Notice to participants Not later than 60 days before the date of a qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account, the administrator of the plan shall notify (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) each participant and beneficiary under the plan of such transfer. Such notice shall include information with respect to the amount of excess pension assets, the portion to be transferred, the amount of health benefits liabilities expected to be provided with the assets transferred, and the amount of pension benefits of the participant which will be nonforfeitable immediately after the transfer.
      (2) Notice to Secretaries, administrator, and employee organizations
        (A) In general Not later than 60 days before the date of any qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account, the employer maintaining the plan from which the transfer is made shall provide the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury, the administrator, and each employee organization representing participants in the plan a written notice of such transfer. A copy of any such notice shall be available for inspection in the principal office of the administrator.
        (B) Information relating to transfer
Such notice shall identify the plan from which the transfer is made, the amount of the transfer, a detailed accounting of assets projected to be held by the plan immediately before and immediately after the transfer, and the current liabilities under the plan at the time of the transfer.
        (C) Authority for additional reporting requirements
The Secretary may prescribe such additional reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.
      (3) Definitions
For purposes of paragraph (1), any term used in such paragraph which is also used in section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on December 17, 1999) shall have the same meaning as when used in such section.
    (f) Repealed. Pub. L. 105-200, title IV, Sec. 401(h)(1)(A), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 668
    (g) Reporting by certain arrangements
The Secretary may, by regulation, require multiple employer welfare arrangements providing benefits consisting of medical care (within the meaning of section 1191b(a)(2) of this title) which are not group health plans to report, not more frequently than annually, in such form and such manner as the Secretary may require for the purpose of determining the extent to which the requirements of part 7 are being carried out in connection with such benefits.
    (h) Simple retirement accounts
      (1) No employer reports
Except as provided in this subsection, no report shall be required under this section by an employer maintaining a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26.
      (2) Summary description
The trustee of any simple retirement account established pursuant to a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26 shall provide to the employer maintaining the arrangement each year a description containing the following information:
          (A) The name and address of the employer and the trustee.
          (B) The requirements for eligibility for participation.
          (C) The benefits provided with respect to the arrangement.
          (D) The time and method of making elections with respect to the arrangement.
          (E) The procedures for, and effects of, withdrawals
        (including rollovers) from the arrangement.
      (3) Employee notification
The employer shall notify each employee immediately before the period for which an election described in section 408(p)(5)(C) of title 26 may be made of the employee's opportunity to make such election. Such notice shall include a copy of the description described in paragraph (2).
    (i) Notice of blackout periods to participant or beneficiary under individual account plan
      (1) Duties of plan administrator
In advance of the commencement of any blackout period with respect to an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall notify the plan participants and beneficiaries who are affected by such action in accordance with this subsection.
      (2) Notice requirements
        (A) In general
The notices described in paragraph (1) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall include -
            (i) the reasons for the blackout period,
            (ii) an identification of the investments and other rights affected,
            (iii) the expected beginning date and length of the blackout period,
            (iv) in the case of investments affected, a statement that the participant or beneficiary should evaluate the appropriateness of their current investment decisions in light of their inability to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts during the blackout period, and
            (v) such other matters as the Secretary may require by regulation.
        (B) Notice to participants and beneficiaries
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, notices described in paragraph (1) shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies at least 30 days in advance of the blackout period.
        (C) Exception to 30-day notice requirement
In any case in which -
            (i) a deferral of the blackout period would violate the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1104(a)(1) of this title, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing, or
            (ii) the inability to provide the 30-day advance notice is due to events that were unforeseeable or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of the plan administrator, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing, subparagraph (B) shall not apply, and the notice shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably possible under the circumstances unless such a notice in advance of the termination of the blackout period is impracticable.
        (D) Written notice
The notice required to be provided under this subsection shall be in writing, except that such notice may be in electronic or other form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient.
        (E) Notice to issuers of employer securities subject to blackout period
In the case of any blackout period in connection with an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall provide timely notice of such blackout period to the issuer of any employer securities subject to such blackout period.
      (3) Exception for blackout periods with limited applicability
In any case in which the blackout period applies only to 1 or more participants or beneficiaries in connection with a merger, acquisition, divestiture, or similar transaction involving the plan or plan sponsor and occurs solely in connection with becoming or ceasing to be a participant or beneficiary under the plan by reason of such merger, acquisition, divestiture, or transaction, the requirement of this subsection that the notice be provided to all participants and beneficiaries shall be treated as met if the notice required under paragraph (1) is provided to such participants or beneficiaries to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably practicable.
      (4) Changes in length of blackout period
If, following the furnishing of the notice pursuant to this subsection, there is a change in the beginning date or length of the blackout period (specified in such notice pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)), the administrator shall provide affected participants and beneficiaries notice of the change as soon as reasonably practicable. In relation to the extended blackout period, such notice shall meet the requirements of paragraph
      (2)(D) and shall specify any material change in the matters referred to in clauses (i) through (v) of paragraph (2)(A).
      (5) Regulatory exceptions
The Secretary may provide by regulation for additional exceptions to the requirements of this subsection which the Secretary determines are in the interests of participants and beneficiaries.
      (6) Guidance and model notices
The Secretary shall issue guidance and model notices which meet the requirements of this subsection.
      (7) Blackout period
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) In general
The term "blackout period" means, in connection with an individual account plan, any period for which any ability of participants or beneficiaries under the plan, which is otherwise available under the terms of such plan, to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts, to obtain loans from the plan, or to obtain distributions from the plan is temporarily suspended, limited, or restricted, if such suspension, limitation, or restriction is for any period of more than 3 consecutive business days.
        (B) Exclusions
The term "blackout period" does not include a suspension, limitation, or restriction -
            (i) which occurs by reason of the application of the securities laws (as defined in section 78c(a)(47) of title 15),
            (ii) which is a change to the plan which provides for a regularly scheduled suspension, limitation, or restriction which is disclosed to participants or beneficiaries through any summary of material modifications, any materials describing specific investment alternatives under the plan, or any changes thereto, or
            (iii) which applies only to 1 or more individuals, each of whom is the participant, an alternate payee (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title), or any other beneficiary pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order
          (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title).
      (8) Individual account plan
        (A) In general
For purposes of this subsection, the term "individual account plan" shall have the meaning provided such term in section 1002(34) of this title, except that such term shall not include a one-participant retirement plan.
        (B) One-participant retirement plan
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "one-participant retirement plan" means a retirement plan that -
            (i) on the first day of the plan year -
              (I) covered only the employer (and the employer's spouse) and the employer owned the entire business (whether or not incorporated), or
              (II) covered only one or more partners (and their spouses) in a business partnership (including partners in an S or C corporation (as defined in section 1361(a) of title 26)),
            (ii) meets the minimum coverage requirements of section 410(b) of title 26 (as in effect on July 30, 2002) without being combined with any other plan of the business that covers the employees of the business,
            (iii) does not provide benefits to anyone except the employer (and the employer's spouse) or the partners (and their spouses),
            (iv) does not cover a business that is a member of an affiliated service group, a controlled group of corporations, or a group of businesses under common control, and
            (v) does not cover a business that leases employees.
    (j) Cross reference
For regulations relating to coordination of reports to the Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

    (!1) See References in Text note below.

Sec. 1022. Summary plan description

      (a) A summary plan description of any employee benefit plan shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries as provided in section 1024(b) of this title. The summary plan description shall include the information described in subsection (b) of this section, shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, and shall be sufficiently accurate and comprehensive to reasonably apprise such participants and beneficiaries of their rights and obligations under the plan. A summary of any material modification in the terms of the plan and any change in the information required under subsection (b) of this section shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b)(1) of this title.
      (b) The summary plan description shall contain the following information: The name and type of administration of the plan; in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), whether a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) is responsible for the financing or administration (including payment of claims) of the plan and (if so) the name and address of such issuer; the name and address of the person designated as agent for the service of legal process, if such person is not the administrator; the name and address of the administrator; names, titles, and addresses of any trustee or trustees (if they are persons different from the administrator); a description of the relevant provisions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement; the plan's requirements respecting eligibility for participation and benefits; a description of the provisions providing for nonforfeitable pension benefits; circumstances which may result in disqualification, ineligibility, or denial or loss of benefits; the source of financing of the plan and the identity of any organization through which benefits are provided; the date of the end of the plan year and whether the records of the plan are kept on a calendar, policy, or fiscal year basis; the procedures to be followed in presenting claims for benefits under the plan including the office at the Department of Labor through which participants and beneficiaries may seek assistance or information regarding their rights under this chapter and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 with respect to health benefits that are offered through a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) and the remedies available under the plan for the redress of claims which are denied in whole or in part (including procedures required under section 1133 of this title).

Sec. 1023. Annual reports

    (a) Publication and filing
      (1)(A) An annual report shall be published with respect to every employee benefit plan to which this part applies. Such report shall be filed with the Secretary in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, and shall be made available and furnished to participants in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title.
      (B) The annual report shall include the information described in subsections (b) and (c) of this section and where applicable subsections (d) and (e) of this section and shall also include -
        (i) a financial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph
      (3) of this subsection, and
        (ii) an actuarial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph (4) of this subsection.

      (2) If some or all of the information necessary to enable the administrator to comply with the requirements of this subchapter is maintained by -
        (A) an insurance carrier or other organization which provides some or all of the benefits under the plan, or holds assets of the plan in a separate account,
        (B) a bank or similar institution which holds some or all of the assets of the plan in a common or collective trust or a separate trust, or custodial account, or
        (C) a plan sponsor as defined in section 1002(16)(B) of this title,
such carrier, organization, bank, institution, or plan sponsor shall transmit and certify the accuracy of such information to the administrator within 120 days after the end of the plan year (or such other date as may be prescribed under regulations of the
Secretary).
      (3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the administrator of an employee benefit plan shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an independent qualified public accountant, who shall conduct such an examination of any financial statements of the plan, and of other books and records of the plan, as the accountant may deem necessary to enable the accountant to form an opinion as to whether the financial statements and schedules required to be included in the annual reports by subsection (b) of this section are presented fairly in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. Such examination shall be conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and shall involve such tests of the books and records of the plan as are considered necessary by the independent qualified public accountant. The independent qualified public accountant shall also offer his opinion as to whether the separate schedules specified in subsection (b)(3) of this section and the summary material required under section 1024(b)(3) of this title present fairly, and in all material respects the information contained therein when considered in conjunction with the financial statements taken as a whole. The opinion by the independent qualified public accountant shall be made a part of the annual report. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirements of this paragraph shall not apply. In a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title a plan is required only to file a simplified annual report, the Secretary may waive the requirements of this paragraph.
      (B) In offering his opinion under this section the accountant may rely on the correctness of any actuarial matter certified to by an enrolled actuary, if he so states his reliance.
      (C) The opinion required by subparagraph (A) need not be expressed as to any statements required by subsection (b)(3)(G) of this section prepared by a bank or similar institution or insurance carrier regulated and supervised and subject to periodic examination by a State or Federal agency if such statements are certified by the bank, similar institution, or insurance carrier as accurate and are made a part of the annual report.
      (D) For purposes of this subchapter, the term "qualified public accountant" means -
        (i) a person who is a certified public accountant, certified by a regulatory authority of a State;
        (ii) a person who is a licensed public accountant licensed by a regulatory authority of a State; or
        (iii) a person certified by the Secretary as a qualified public accountant in accordance with regulations published by him for a person who practices in States where there is no certification or licensing procedure for accountants.

      (4)(A) The administrator of an employee pension benefit plan subject to the reporting requirement of subsection (d) of this section shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an enrolled actuary who shall be responsible for the preparation of the materials comprising the actuarial statement required under subsection (d) of this section. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirement of this paragraph shall not apply, and, in a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title, a plan is required only to file a simplified report, the Secretary may waive the requirement of this paragraph.
      (B) The enrolled actuary shall utilize such assumptions and techniques as are necessary to enable him to form an opinion as to whether the contents of the matters reported under subsection (d) of this section -
        (i) are in the aggregate reasonably related to the experience of the plan and to reasonable expectations; and
        (ii) represent his best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.

The opinion by the enrolled actuary shall be made with respect to, and shall be made a part of, each annual report.
      (C) For purposes of this subchapter, the term "enrolled actuary" means an actuary enrolled under subtitle C of subchapter II of this chapter.
      (D) In making a certification under this section the enrolled actuary may rely on the correctness of any accounting matter under subsection (b) of this section to which any qualified public accountant has expressed an opinion, if he so states his reliance.
    (b) Financial statement
An annual report under this section shall include a financial statement containing the following information:
      (1) With respect to an employee welfare benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities; a statement of changes in fund balance; and a statement of changes in financial position. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of the plan.
      (2) With respect to an employee pension benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities, and a statement of changes in net assets available for plan benefits which shall include details of revenues and expenses and other changes aggregated by general source and application. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; the funding policy (including policy with respect to prior service cost), and any changes in such policies during the year; a description of any significant changes in plan benefits made during the period; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of such pension plan.
      (3) With respect to all employee benefit plans, the statement required under paragraph (1) or (2) shall have attached the following information in separate schedules:
        (A) a statement of the assets and liabilities of the plan aggregated by categories and valued at their current value, and the same data displayed in comparative form for the end of the previous fiscal year of the plan;
        (B) a statement of receipts and disbursements during the preceding twelve-month period aggregated by general sources and applications;
        (C) a schedule of all assets held for investment purposes aggregated and identified by issuer, borrower, or lessor, or similar party to the transaction (including a notation as to whether such party is known to be a party in interest), maturity date, rate of interest, collateral, par or maturity value, cost, and current value;
        (D) a schedule of each transaction involving a person known to be party in interest, the identity of such party in interest and his relationship or that of any other party in interest to the plan, a description of each asset to which the transaction relates; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expense incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction;
        (E) a schedule of all loans or fixed income obligations which were in default as of the close of the plan's fiscal year or were classified during the year as uncollectable and the following information with respect to each loan on such schedule (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the original principal amount of the loan, the amount of principal and interest received during the reporting year, the unpaid balance, the identity and address of the obligor, a detailed description of the loan (including date of making and maturity, interest rate, the type and value of collateral, and other material terms), the amount of principal and interest overdue (if any) and an explanation thereof;
        (F) a list of all leases which were in default or were classified during the year as uncollectable; and the following information with respect to each lease on such schedule
      (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the type of property leased (and, in the case of fixed assets such as land, buildings, leasehold, and so forth, the location of the property), the identity of the lessor or lessee from or to whom the plan is leasing, the relationship of such lessors and lessees, if any, to the plan, the employer, employee organization, or any other party in interest, the terms of the lease regarding rent, taxes, insurance, repairs, expenses, and renewal options; the date the leased property was purchased and its cost, the date the property was leased and its approximate value at such date, the gross rental receipts during the reporting period, expenses paid for the leased property during the reporting period, the net receipts from the lease, the amounts in arrears, and a statement as to what steps have been taken to collect amounts due or otherwise remedy the default;
        (G) if some or all of the assets of a plan or plans are held in a common or collective trust maintained by a bank or similar institution or in a separate account maintained by an insurance carrier or a separate trust maintained by a bank as trustee, the report shall include the most recent annual statement of assets and liabilities of such common or collective trust, and in the case of a separate account or a separate trust, such other information as is required by the administrator in order to comply with this subsection; and
        (H) a schedule of each reportable transaction, the name of each party to the transaction (except that, in the case of an acquisition or sale of a security on the market, the report need not identify the person from whom the security was acquired or to whom it was sold) and a description of each asset to which the transaction applies; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expenses incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "reportable transaction" means a transaction to which the plan is a party if such transaction is -
          (i) a transaction involving an amount in excess of 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;
          (ii) any transaction (other than a transaction respecting a security) which is part of a series of transactions with or in conjunction with a person in a plan year, if the aggregate amount of such transactions exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;
          (iii) a transaction which is part of a series of transactions respecting one or more securities of the same issuer, if the aggregate amount of such transactions in the plan year exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan; or
          (iv) a transaction with or in conjunction with a person respecting a security, if any other transaction with or in conjunction with such person in the plan year respecting a security is required to be reported by reason of clause (i).

      (4) The Secretary may, by regulation, relieve any plan from filing a copy of a statement of assets and liabilities (or other information) described in paragraph (3)(G) if such statement and other information is filed with the Secretary by the bank or insurance carrier which maintains the common or collective trust or separate account.
    (c) Information to be furnished by administrator
The administrator shall furnish as a part of a report under this section the following information:
        (1) The number of employees covered by the plan.
        (2) The name and address of each fiduciary.
        (3) Except in the case of a person whose compensation is minimal (determined under regulations of the Secretary) and who performs solely ministerial duties (determined under such regulations), the name of each person (including but not limited to, any consultant, broker, trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian who rendered services to the plan or who had transactions with the plan) who received directly or indirectly compensation from the plan during the preceding year for services rendered to the plan or its participants, the amount of such compensation, the nature of his services to the plan or its participants, his relationship to the employer of the employees covered by the plan, or the employee organization, and any other office, position, or employment he holds with any party in interest.
        (4) An explanation of the reason for any change in appointment of trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, enrolled actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian.
        (5) Such financial and actuarial information including but not limited to the material described in subsections (b) and (d) of this section as the Secretary may find necessary or appropriate.
    (d) Actuarial statement
With respect to an employee pension benefit plan (other than (A) a profit sharing, savings, or other plan, which is an individual account plan, (B) a plan described in section 1081(b) of this title, or (C) a plan described both in section 1321(b) of this title and in paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of section 1081(a) of this title) an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include a complete actuarial statement applicable to the plan year which shall include the following:
        (1) The date of the plan year, and the date of the actuarial valuation applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed.
        (2) The date and amount of the contribution (or contributions) received by the plan for the plan year for which the report is filed and contributions for prior plan years not previously reported.
        (3) The following information applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed: the normal costs, the accrued liabilities, an identification of benefits not included in the calculation; a statement of the other facts and actuarial assumptions and methods used to determine costs, and a justification for any change in actuarial assumptions or cost methods; and the minimum contribution required under section 1082 of this title.
        (4) The number of participants and beneficiaries, both retired and nonretired, covered by the plan.
        (5) The current value of the assets accumulated in the plan, and the present value of the assets of the plan used by the actuary in any computation of the amount of contributions to the plan required under section 1082 of this title and a statement explaining the basis of such valuation of present value of assets.
        (6) Information required in regulations of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation with respect to:
          (A) the current value of the assets of the plan,
          (B) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for participants and beneficiaries receiving payments under the plan,
          (C) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for all other participants and beneficiaries,
          (D) the present value of all accrued benefits which are not nonforfeitable (including a separate accounting of such benefits which are benefit commitments, as defined in section 1301(a)(16) of this title), and
          (E) the actuarial assumptions and techniques used in determining the values described in subparagraphs (A) through
        (D).

        (7) A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the accumulated funding deficiency to zero.
        (8) A statement by the enrolled actuary -
          (A) that to the best of his knowledge the report is complete and accurate, and
          (B) the requirements of section 1082(c)(3) of this title
        (relating to reasonable actuarial assumptions and methods) have been complied with.

        (9) A copy of the opinion required by subsection (a)(4) of this section.
        (10) A statement by the actuary which discloses -
          (A) any event which the actuary has not taken into account, and
          (B) any trend which, for purposes of the actuarial assumptions used, was not assumed to continue in the future,
but only if, to the best of the actuary's knowledge, such event or trend may require a material increase in plan costs or required contribution rates.
        (11) If the current value of the assets of the plan is less than 70 percent of the current liability under the plan (within the meaning of section 1082(d)(7) of this title), the percentage which such value is of such liability..(!1)

        (12) Such other information regarding the plan as the Secretary may by regulation require.
        (13) Such other information as may be necessary to fully and fairly disclose the actuarial position of the plan.

Such actuary shall make an actuarial valuation of the plan for every third plan year, unless he determines that a more frequent valuation is necessary to support his opinion under subsection
    (a)(4) of this section.
    (e) Statement from insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organizations which sell or guarantee plan benefits
If some or all of the benefits under the plan are purchased from and guaranteed by an insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organization, a report under this section shall include a statement from such insurance company, service, or other similar organization covering the plan year and enumerating -
        (1) the premium rate or subscription charge and the total premium or subscription charges paid to each such carrier, insurance service, or other similar organization and the approximate number of persons covered by each class of such benefits; and
        (2) the total amount of premiums received, the approximate number of persons covered by each class of benefits, and the total claims paid by such company, service, or other organization; dividends or retroactive rate adjustments, commissions, and administrative service or other fees or other specific acquisition costs paid by such company, service, or other organization; any amounts held to provide benefits after retirement; the remainder of such premiums; and the names and addresses of the brokers, agents, or other persons to whom commissions or fees were paid, the amount paid to each, and for what purpose. If any such company, service, or other organization does not maintain separate experience records covering the specific groups it serves, the report shall include in lieu of the information required by the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (A) a statement as to the basis of its premium rate or subscription charge, the total amount of premiums or subscription charges received from the plan, and a copy of the financial report of the company, service, or other organization and (B) if such company, service, or organization incurs specific costs in connection with the acquisition or retention of any particular plan or plans, a detailed statement of such costs.

    (!1) So in original.

Sec. 1024. Filing and furnishing of information

    (a) Filing of annual report with Secretary
      (1) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall file with the Secretary the annual report for a plan year within 210 days after the close of such year (or within such time as may be required by regulations promulgated by the Secretary in order to reduce duplicative filing). The Secretary shall make copies of such annual reports available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor.
      (2)(A) With respect to annual reports required to be filed with the Secretary under this part, he may by regulation prescribe simplified annual reports for any pension plan which covers less than 100 participants.
      (B) Nothing contained in this paragraph shall preclude the Secretary from requiring any information or data from any such plan to which this part applies where he finds such data or information is necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter nor shall the Secretary be precluded from revoking provisions for simplified reports for any such plan if he finds it necessary to do so in order to carry out the objectives of this subchapter.
      (3) The Secretary may by regulation exempt any welfare benefit plan from all or part of the reporting and disclosure requirements of this subchapter, or may provide for simplified reporting and disclosure if he finds that such requirements are inappropriate as applied to welfare benefit plans.
      (4) The Secretary may reject any filing under this section -
        (A) if he determines that such filing is incomplete for purposes of this part; or
        (B) if he determines that there is any material qualification by an accountant or actuary contained in an opinion submitted pursuant to section 1023(a)(3)(A) or section 1023(a)(4)(B) of this title.

      (5) If the Secretary rejects a filing of a report under paragraph
    (4) and if a revised filing satisfactory to the Secretary is not submitted within 45 days after the Secretary makes his determination under paragraph (4) to reject the filing, and if the Secretary deems it in the best interest of the participants, he may take any one or more of the following actions -
        (A) retain an independent qualified public accountant (as defined in section 1023(a)(3)(D) of this title) on behalf of the participants to perform an audit,
        (B) retain an enrolled actuary (as defined in section 1023(a)(4)(C) of this title) on behalf of the plan participants, to prepare an actuarial statement,
        (C) bring a civil action for such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to enforce the provisions of this part, or
        (D) take any other action authorized by this subchapter.

The administrator shall permit such accountant or actuary to inspect whatever books and records of the plan are necessary for such audit. The plan shall be liable to the Secretary for the expenses for such audit or report, and the Secretary may bring an action against the plan in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover such expenses.
      (6) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall furnish to the Secretary, upon request, any documents relating to the employee benefit plan, including but not limited to, the latest summary plan description (including any summaries of plan changes not contained in the summary plan description), and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the plan is established or operated.
    (b) Publication of summary plan description and annual report to participants and beneficiaries of plan Publication of the summary plan descriptions and annual reports shall be made to participants and beneficiaries of the particular plan as follows:
      (1) The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the summary plan description, and all modifications and changes referred to in section 1022(a) of this title -
        (A) within 90 days after he becomes a participant, or (in the case of a beneficiary) within 90 days after he first receives benefits, or
        (B) if later, within 120 days after the plan becomes subject to this part.

The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, every fifth year after the plan becomes subject to this part an updated summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title which integrates all plan amendments made within such five-year period, except that in a case where no amendments have been made to a plan during such five-year period this sentence shall not apply. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the administrator shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, the summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title every tenth year after the plan becomes subject to this part. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title (other than a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided in the case of a group health plan
    (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished not later than 210 days after the end of the plan year in which the change is adopted to each participant, and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title that is a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided under a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries not later than 60 days after the date of the adoption of the modification or change.
In the alternative, the plan sponsors may provide such description at regular intervals of not more than 90 days. The Secretary shall issue regulations within 180 days after August 21, 1996, providing alternative mechanisms to delivery by mail through which group health plans (as so defined) may notify participants and beneficiaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits.
      (2) The administrator shall make copies of the latest updated summary plan description and the latest annual report and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan was established or is operated available for examination by any plan participant or beneficiary in the principal office of the administrator and in such other places as may be necessary to make available all pertinent information to all participants (including such places as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations).
      (3) Within 210 days after the close of the fiscal year of the plan, the administrator shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the statements and schedules, for such fiscal year, described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1023(b)(3) of this title and such other material (including the percentage determined under section 1023(d)(11) of this title) as is necessary to fairly summarize the latest annual report.
      (4) The administrator shall, upon written request of any participant or beneficiary, furnish a copy of the latest updated summary,(!1) plan description, and the latest annual report, any terminal report, the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan is established or operated. The administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover the cost of furnishing such complete copies. The Secretary may by regulation prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

    (c) Statement of rights
The Secretary may by regulation require that the administrator of any employee benefit plan furnish to each participant and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan a statement of the rights of participants and beneficiaries under this subchapter.
    (d) Cross references
For regulations respecting coordination of reports to the
Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

    (!1) So in original. Comma probably should not appear.

Sec. 1025. Reporting of participant's benefit rights

    (a) Statement furnished by administrator to participants and beneficiaries
Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan shall furnish to any plan participant or beneficiary who so requests in writing, a statement indicating, on the basis of the latest available information -
        (1) the total benefits accrued, and
        (2) the nonforfeitable pension benefits, if any, which have accrued, or the earliest date on which benefits will become nonforfeitable.
    (b) One-per-year limit on reports
In no case shall a participant or beneficiary be entitled under this section to receive more than one report described in subsection (a) of this section during any one 12-month period.
    (c) Individual statement furnished by administrator to participants setting forth information in administrator's Internal Revenue registration statement and notification of forfeitable benefits
Each administrator required to register under section 6057 of title 26 shall, before the expiration of the time prescribed for such registration, furnish to each participant described in subsection (a)(2)(C) of such section, an individual statement setting forth the information with respect to such participant required to be contained in the registration statement required by section 6057(a)(2) of title 26. Such statement shall also include a notice to the participant of any benefits which are forfeitable if the participant dies before a certain date.
    (d) Plans to which more than one unaffiliated employer is required to contribute; regulations
Subsection (a) of this section shall apply to a plan to which more than one unaffiliated employer is required to contribute only to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 1026. Reports made public information

      (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the contents of the annual reports, statements, and other documents filed with the Secretary pursuant to this part shall be public information and the Secretary shall make any such information and data available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor. The Secretary may use the information and data for statistical and research purposes, and compile and publish such studies, analyses, reports, and surveys based thereon as he may deem appropriate.
      (b) Information described in sections 1025(a) and 1025(c) of this title with respect to a participant may be disclosed only to the extent that information respecting that participant's benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] may be disclosed under such Act.

Sec. 1027. Retention of records

Every person subject to a requirement to file any report or to certify any information therefor under this subchapter or who would be subject to such a requirement but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title shall maintain records on the matters of which disclosure is required which will provide in sufficient detail the necessary basic information and data from which the documents thus required may be verified, explained, or clarified, and checked for accuracy and completeness, and shall include vouchers, worksheets, receipts, and applicable resolutions, and shall keep such records available for examination for a period of not less than six years after the filing date of the documents based on the information which they contain, or six years after the date on which such documents would have been filed but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title.

Sec. 1028. Reliance on administrative interpretations

In any criminal proceeding under section 1131 of this title, based on any act or omission in alleged violation of this part or section 1112 of this title, no person shall be subject to any liability or punishment for or on account of the failure of such person to (1) comply with this part or section 1112 of this title, if he pleads and proves that the act or omission complained of was in good faith, in conformity with, and in reliance on any regulation or written ruling of the Secretary, or (2) publish and file any information required by any provision of this part if he pleads and proves that he published and filed such information in good faith, and in conformity with any regulation or written ruling of the Secretary issued under this part regarding the filing of such reports. Such a defense, if established, shall be a bar to the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that (A) after such act or omission, such interpretation or opinion is modified or rescinded or is determined by judicial authority to be invalid or of no legal effect, or (B) after publishing or filing the annual reports and other reports required by this subchapter, such publication or filing is determined by judicial authority not to be in conformity with the requirements of this part.

Sec. 1029. Forms

    (a) Information required on forms
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may require that any information required under this subchapter to be submitted to him, including but not limited to the information required to be filed by the administrator pursuant to section 1023(b)(3) and (c) of this title, must be submitted on such forms as he may prescribe.
    (b) Information not required on forms
The financial statement and opinion required to be prepared by an independent qualified public accountant pursuant to section 1023(a)(3)(A) of this title, the actuarial statement required to be prepared by an enrolled actuary pursuant to section 1023(a)(4)(A) of this title and the summary plan description required by section 1022(a) of this title shall not be required to be submitted on forms.
    (c) Format and content of summary plan description, annual report, etc., required to be furnished to plan participants and beneficiaries
The Secretary may prescribe the format and content of the summary plan description, the summary of the annual report described in section 1024(b)(3) of this title and any other report, statements or documents (other than the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the plan is established or operated), which are required to be furnished or made available to plan participants and beneficiaries receiving benefits under the plan.

Sec. 1030. Alternative methods of compliance

      (a) The Secretary on his own motion or after having received the petition of an administrator may prescribe an alternative method for satisfying any requirement of this part with respect to any pension plan, or class of pension plans, subject to such requirement if he determines -
        (1) that the use of such alternative method is consistent with the purposes of this subchapter and that it provides adequate disclosure to the participants and beneficiaries in the plan, and adequate reporting to the Secretary,
        (2) that the application of such requirement of this part would -
          (A) increase the costs to the plan, or
          (B) impose unreasonable administrative burdens with respect to the operation of the plan, having regard to the particular characteristics of the plan or the type of plan involved; and

        (3) that the application of this part would be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate.

      (b) An alternative method may be prescribed under subsection (a) of this section by regulation or otherwise. If an alternative method is prescribed other than by regulation, the Secretary shall provide notice and an opportunity for interested persons to present their views, and shall publish in the Federal Register the provisions of such alternative method.

Sec. 1031. Repeal and effective date

      (a)(1) The Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act [29 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] is repealed except that such Act shall continue to apply to any conduct and events which occurred before the effective date of this part.
      (2)(A) Section 664 of title 18 is amended by striking out "any such plan subject to the provisions of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act" and inserting in lieu thereof "any employee benefit plan subject to any provisions of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974".
      (B)(i) Section 1027 of such title 18 is amended by striking out "Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act" and inserting in lieu thereof "title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974", and by striking out "Act" each place it appears and inserting in lieu thereof "title".
      (ii) The heading for such section is amended by striking out "welfare and pension plans disclosure act" and inserting in lieu thereof "employee retirement income security act of 1974".
      (iii) The table of sections of chapter 47 of such title 18 is amended by striking out "Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act" in the item relating to section 1027 and inserting in lieu thereof "Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974".
      (C) Section 1954 of such title 18 is amended by striking out "any plan subject to the provisions of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act as amended" and inserting in lieu thereof "any employee welfare benefit plan or employee pension benefit plan, respectively, subject to any provision of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974"; and by striking out "sections 3(3) and 5(b)(1) and (2) of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act, as amended" and inserting in lieu thereof "sections 3(4) and (3)(16) (!1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974".

      (D) Section 211 of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. 441) is amended by striking out "Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act" and inserting in lieu thereof "Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974".
      (b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), this part (including the amendments and repeals made by subsection (a) of this section) shall take effect on January 1, 1975.
      (2) In the case of a plan which has a plan year which begins before January 1, 1975, and ends after December 31, 1974, the Secretary may postpone by regulation the effective date of the repeal of any provision of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act (and of any amendment made by subsection (a)(2) of this section) and the effective date of any provision of this part, until the beginning of the first plan year of such plan which begins after January 1, 1975.
      (c) The provisions of this subchapter authorizing the Secretary to promulgate regulations shall take effect on September 2, 1974.
      (d) Subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after September 2, 1974.

    (!1) So in original. Probably should be "3(16)".

PART 2 - PARTICIPATION AND VESTING

Sec. 1051. Coverage

This part shall apply to any employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title) other than -
        (1) an employee welfare benefit plan;
        (2) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees;
        (3)(A) a plan established and maintained by a society, order, or association described in section 501(c)(8) or (9) of title 26, if no part of the contributions to or under such plan are made by employers of participants in such plan, or
        (B) a trust described in section 501(c)(18) of title 26;
        (4) a plan which is established and maintained by a labor organization described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and which does not at any time after September 2, 1974, provide for employer contributions;
        (5) any agreement providing payments to a retired partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest, as described in section 736 of title 26;
        (6) an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 of title 26, or a retirement bond described in section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984);
        (7) an excess benefit plan; or
        (8) any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.

Sec. 1052. Minimum participation standards

      (a)(1)(A) No pension plan may require, as a condition of participation in the plan, that an employee complete a period of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan extending beyond the later of the following dates -
        (i) the date on which the employee attains the age of 21; or
        (ii) the date on which he completes 1 year of service.

      (B)(i) In the case of any plan which provides that after not more than 2 years of service each participant has a right to 100 percent of his accrued benefit under the plan which is nonforfeitable at the time such benefit accrues, clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting "2 years of service" for "1 year of service".
      (ii) In the case of any plan maintained exclusively for employees of an educational organization (as defined in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of title 26) by an employer which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26, which provides that each participant having at least 1 year of service has a right to 100 percent of his accrued benefit under the plan which is nonforfeitable at the time such benefit accrues, clause (i) of subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting "26" for "21".
This clause shall not apply to any plan to which clause (i) applies.
      (2) No pension plan may exclude from participation (on the basis of age) employees who have attained a specified age.
      (3)(A) For purposes of this section, the term "year of service" means a 12-month period during which the employee has not less than 1,000 hours of service. For purposes of this paragraph, computation of any 12-month period shall be made with reference to the date on which the employee's employment commenced, except that, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, such computation may be made by reference to the first day of a plan year in the case of an employee who does not complete 1,000 hours of service during the 12-month period beginning on the date his employment commenced.
      (B) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term "year of service" shall be such period as may be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
      (C) For purposes of this section, the term "hour of service" means a time of service determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
      (D) For purposes of this section, in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as 1,000 hours of service. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.
      (4) A plan shall be treated as not meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) unless it provides that any employee who has satisfied the minimum age and service requirements specified in such paragraph, and who is otherwise entitled to participate in the plan, commences participation in the plan no later than the earlier of -
        (A) the first day of the first plan year beginning after the date on which such employee satisfied such requirements, or
        (B) the date 6 months after the date on which he satisfied such requirements,
unless such employee was separated from the service before the date referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B), whichever is applicable.
      (b)(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and
    (4), all years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan shall be taken into account in computing the period of service for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section.
      (2) In the case of any employee who has any 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title) under a plan to which the service requirements of clause (i) of subsection
    (a)(1)(B) of this section apply, if such employee has not satisfied such requirements, service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account.
      (3) In computing an employee's period of service for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section in the case of any participant who has any 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title), service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account under the plan until he has completed a year of service (as defined in subsection (a)(3) of this section) after his return.
      (4)(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of a nonvested participant, years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan before any period of consecutive 1-year breaks in service shall not be required to be taken into account in computing the period of service if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service within such period equals or exceeds the greater of -
        (i) 5, or
        (ii) the aggregate number of years of service before such period.

      (B) If any years of service are not required to be taken into account by reason of a period of breaks in service to which subparagraph (A) applies, such years of service shall not be taken into account in applying subparagraph (A) to a subsequent period of breaks in service.
      (C) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "nonvested participant" means a participant who does not have any nonforfeitable right under the plan to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.
      (5)(A) In the case of each individual who is absent from work for any period -
        (i) by reason of the pregnancy of the individual,
        (ii) by reason of the birth of a child of the individual,
        (iii) by reason of the placement of a child with the individual in connection with the adoption of such child by such individual, or
        (iv) for purposes of caring for such child for a period beginning immediately following such birth or placement,
the plan shall treat as hours of service, solely for purposes of determining under this subsection whether a 1-year break in service
    (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title) has occurred, the hours described in subparagraph (B).
      (B) The hours described in this subparagraph are -
        (i) the hours of service which otherwise would normally have been credited to such individual but for such absence, or
        (ii) in any case in which the plan is unable to determine the hours described in clause (i), 8 hours of service per day of such absence,
except that the total number of hours treated as hours of service under this subparagraph by reason of any such pregnancy or placement shall not exceed 501 hours.
      (C) The hours described in subparagraph (B) shall be treated as hours of service as provided in this paragraph -
        (i) only in the year in which the absence from work begins, if a participant would be prevented from incurring a 1-year break in service in such year solely because the period of absence is treated as hours of service as provided in subparagraph (A); or
        (ii) in any other case, in the immediately following year.

      (D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "year" means the period used in computations pursuant to subsection (a)(3)(A) of this section.
      (E) A plan may provide that no credit will be given pursuant to this paragraph unless the individual furnishes to the plan administrator such timely information as the plan may reasonably require to establish -
        (i) that the absence from work is for reasons referred to in subparagraph (A), and
        (ii) the number of days for which there was such an absence.

Sec. 1053. Minimum vesting standards

    (a) Nonforfeitability requirements
Each pension plan shall provide that an employee's right to his normal retirement benefit is nonforfeitable upon the attainment of normal retirement age and in addition shall satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection.
        (1) A plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if an employee's rights in his accrued benefit derived from his own contributions are nonforfeitable.
        (2) Except as provided in paragraph (4), a plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if it satisfies the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B).
          (A) A plan satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph if an employee who has completed at least 5 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.
          (B) A plan satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph if an employee has a nonforfeitable right to a percentage of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions determined under the following table:

Years of service: 3 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 20
Years of service: 4 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 40
Years of service: 5 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 60
Years of service: 6 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 80
Years of service: 7 or more - The nonforfeitable percentages: 100.

        (3)(A) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that it is not payable if the participant dies
      (except in the case of a survivor annuity which is payable as provided in section 1055 of this title).
        (B) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that the payment of benefits is suspended for such period as the employee is employed, subsequent to the commencement of payment of such benefits -
          (i) in the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, by an employer who maintains the plan under which such benefits were being paid; and
          (ii) in the case of a multiemployer plan, in the same industry, in the same trade or craft, and the same geographic area covered by the plan, as when such benefits commenced.

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph, including regulations with respect to the meaning of the term "employed".
        (C) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because plan amendments may be given retroactive application as provided in section 1082(c)(8) of this title.
        (D)(i) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that, in the case of a participant who does not have a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of his accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, such accrued benefit may be forfeited on account of the withdrawal by the participant of any amount attributable to the benefit derived from mandatory contributions (as defined in the last sentence of section 1054(c)(2)(C) of this title) made by such participant.
        (ii) Clause (i) shall not apply to a plan unless the plan provides that any accrued benefit forfeited under a plan provision described in such clause shall be restored upon repayment by the participant of the full amount of the withdrawal described in such clause plus, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest. Such interest shall be computed on such amount at the rate determined for purposes of section 1054(c)(2)(C) of this title (if such subsection applies) on the date of such repayment
      (computed annually from the date of such withdrawal). The plan provision required under this clause may provide that such repayment must be made (I) in the case of a withdrawal on account of separation from service, before the earlier of 5 years after the first date on which the participant is subsequently re-employed by the employer, or the close of the first period of 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service commencing after the withdrawal; or (II) in the case of any other withdrawal, 5 years after the date of the withdrawal.
        (iii) In the case of accrued benefits derived from employer contributions which accrued before September 2, 1974, a right to such accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that an amount of such accrued benefit may be forfeited on account of the withdrawal by the participant of an amount attributable to the benefit derived from mandatory contributions, made by such participant before September 2, 1974, if such amount forfeited is proportional to such amount withdrawn. This clause shall not apply to any plan to which any mandatory contribution is made after September 2, 1974. The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this clause.
        (iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, in the case of any class-year plan, a withdrawal of employee contributions shall be treated as a withdrawal of such contributions on a plan year by plan year basis in succeeding order of time.
        (v) Cross reference. -
For nonforfeitability where the employee has a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of his accrued benefit, see section 1056(c) of this title.

        (E)(i) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions under a multiemployer plan shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that benefits accrued as a result of service with the participant's employer before the employer had an obligation to contribute under the plan may not be payable if the employer ceases contributions to the multiemployer plan.
        (ii) A participant's right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions under a multiemployer plan shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because -
          (I) the plan is amended to reduce benefits under section 1425 or 1441 of this title, or
          (II) benefit payments under the plan may be suspended under section 1426 or 1441 of this title.

        (F) A matching contribution (within the meaning of section 401(m) of title 26) shall not be treated as forfeitable merely because such contribution is forfeitable if the contribution to which the matching contribution relates is treated as an excess contribution under section 401(k)(8)(B) of title 26, an excess deferral under section 402(g)(2)(A) of title 26, or an excess aggregate contribution under section 401(m)(6)(B) of title 26.
        (4) In the case of matching contributions (as defined in section 401(m)(4)(A) of title 26), paragraph (2) shall be applied -
          (A) by substituting "3 years" for "5 years" in subparagraph (A), and
          (B) by substituting the following table for the table contained in subparagraph (B):

Years of service: 2 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 20
Years of service: 3 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 40
Years of service: 4 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 60
Years of service: 5 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 80
Years of service: 6 - The nonforfeitable percentages: 100.

    (b) Computation of period of service
      (1) In computing the period of service under the plan for purposes of determining the nonforfeitable percentage under subsection (a)(2) of this section, all of an employee's years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan shall be taken into account, except that the following may be disregarded:
        (A) years of service before age 18,(!1)

        (B) years of service during a period for which the employee declined to contribute to a plan requiring employee contributions,(!1)
        (C) years of service with an employer during any period for which the employer did not maintain the plan or a predecessor plan, defined by the Secretary of the Treasury;
        (D) service not required to be taken into account under paragraph (3);
        (E) years of service before January 1, 1971, unless the employee has had at least 3 years of service after December 31, 1970;
        (F) years of service before this part first applies to the plan if such service would have been disregarded under the rules of the plan with regard to breaks in service, as in effect on the applicable date; and
        (G) in the case of a multiemployer plan, years of service -
          (i) with an employer after -
            (I) a complete withdrawal of such employer from the plan (within the meaning of section 1383 of this title), or
            (II) to the extent permitted by regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, a partial withdrawal described in section 1385(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title in connection with the decertification of the collective bargaining representative; and

          (ii) with any employer under the plan after the termination date of the plan under section 1348 of this title.

      (2)(A) For purposes of this section, except as provided in subparagraph (C), the term "year of service" means a calendar year, plan year, or other 12-consecutive month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) during which the participant has completed 1,000 hours of service.
      (B) For purposes of this section, the term "hour of service" has the meaning provided by section 1052(a)(3)(C) of this title.
      (C) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term "year of service" shall be such period as determined under regulations of the Secretary.
      (D) For purposes of this section, in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as 1,000 hours of service. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.
      (3)(A) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "1-year break in service" means a calendar year, plan year, or other 12-consecutive-month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) during which the participant has not completed more than 500 hours of service.
      (B) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of any employee who has any 1-year break in service, years of service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account until he has completed a year of service after his return.
      (C) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of any participant in an individual account plan or an insured defined benefit plan which satisfies the requirements of subsection 1054(b)(1)(F) of this title who has 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service, years of service after such 5-year period shall not be required to be taken into account for purposes of determining the nonforfeitable percentage of his accrued benefit derived from employer contributions which accrued before such 5-year period.
      (D)(i) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of a nonvested participant, years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan before any period of consecutive 1-year breaks in service shall not be required to be taken into account if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service within such period equals or exceeds the greater of -
        (I) 5, or
        (II) the aggregate number of years of service before such period.

      (ii) If any years of service are not required to be taken into account by reason of a period of breaks in service to which clause
    (i) applies, such years of service shall not be taken into account in applying clause (i) to a subsequent period of breaks in service.
      (iii) For purposes of clause (i), the term "nonvested participant" means a participant who does not have any nonforfeitable right under the plan to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.
      (E)(i) In the case of each individual who is absent from work for any period -
        (I) by reason of the pregnancy of the individual,
        (II) by reason of the birth of a child of the individual,
        (III) by reason of the placement of a child with the individual in connection with the adoption of such child by such individual, or
        (IV) for purposes of caring for such child for a period beginning immediately following such birth or placement,
the plan shall treat as hours of service, solely for purposes of determining under this paragraph whether a 1-year break in service has occurred, the hours described in clause (ii).
      (ii) The hours described in this clause are -
        (I) the hours of service which otherwise would normally have been credited to such individual but for such absence, or
        (II) in any case in which the plan is unable to determine the hours described in subclause (I), 8 hours of service per day of absence,
except that the total number of hours treated as hours of service under this clause by reason of such pregnancy or placement shall not exceed 501 hours.
      (iii) The hours described in clause (ii) shall be treated as hours of service as provided in this subparagraph -
        (I) only in the year in which the absence from work begins, if a participant would be prevented from incurring a 1-year break in service in such year solely because the period of absence is treated as hours of service as provided in clause (i); or
        (II) in any other case, in the immediately following year.

      (iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "year" means the period used in computations pursuant to paragraph (2).
      (v) A plan may provide that no credit will be given pursuant to this subparagraph unless the individual furnishes to the plan administrator such timely information as the plan may reasonably require to establish -
        (I) that the absence from work is for reasons referred to in clause (i), and
        (II) the number of days for which there was such an absence.
      (4) Cross references. -
          (A) For definitions of "accrued benefit" and "normal retirement age", see sections 1002(23) and (24) of this title.
          (B) For effect of certain cash out distributions, see section 1054(d)(1) of this title.
    (c) Plan amendments altering vesting schedule
      (1)(A) A plan amendment changing any vesting schedule under the plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of subsection (a)(2) of this section if the nonforfeitable percentage of the accrued benefit derived from employer contributions
    (determined as of the later of the date such amendment is adopted, or the date such amendment becomes effective) of any employee who is a participant in the plan is less than such nonforfeitable percentage computed under the plan without regard to such amendment.
      (B) A plan amendment changing any vesting schedule under the plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of subsection
    (a)(2) of this section unless each participant having not less than 3 years of service is permitted to elect, within a reasonable period after adoption of such amendment, to have his nonforfeitable percentage computed under the plan without regard to such amendment.
      (2) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to benefits which may not be provided for designated employees in the event of early termination of the plan under provisions of the plan adopted pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury to preclude the discrimination prohibited by section 401(a)(4) of title 26.
    (d) Nonforfeitable benefits after lesser period and in greater amounts than required
A pension plan may allow for nonforfeitable benefits after a lesser period and in greater amounts than are required by this part.
    (e) Consent for distribution; present value; covered distributions
      (1) If the present value of any nonforfeitable benefit with respect to a participant in a plan exceeds $5,000, the plan shall provide that such benefit may not be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant.
      (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the present value shall be calculated in accordance with section 1055(g)(3) of this title.
      (3) This subsection shall not apply to any distribution of dividends to which section 404(k) of title 26 applies.
      (4) A plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of this subsection if, under the terms of the plan, the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit is determined without regard to that portion of such benefit which is attributable to rollover contributions (and earnings allocable thereto). For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "rollover contributions" means any rollover contribution under sections 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b)(8), 408(d)(3)(A)(ii), and 457(e)(16) of title 26.

    (!1) So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

Sec. 1054. Benefit accrual requirements

    (a) Satisfaction of requirements by pension plans
Each pension plan shall satisfy the requirements of subsection
    (b)(3) of this section, and -
        (1) in the case of a defined benefit plan, shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(1) of this section; and
        (2) in the case of a defined contribution plan, shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(2) of this section.
    (b) Enumeration of plan requirements
      (1)(A) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if the accrued benefit to which each participant is entitled upon his separation from the service is not less than -
        (i) 3 percent of the normal retirement benefit to which he would be entitled at the normal retirement age if he commenced participation at the earliest possible entry age under the plan and served continuously until the earlier of age 65 or the normal retirement age specified under the plan, multiplied by
        (ii) the number of years (not in excess of 33 1/3 ) of his participation in the plan.
In the case of a plan providing retirement benefits based on compensation during any period, the normal retirement benefit to which a participant would be entitled shall be determined as if he continued to earn annually the average rate of compensation which he earned during consecutive years of service, not in excess of 10, for which his compensation was the highest. For purposes of this subparagraph, social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after such current year.
      (B) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph of a particular plan year if under the plan the accrued benefit payable at the normal retirement age is equal to the normal retirement benefit and the annual rate at which any individual who is or could be a participant can accrue the retirement benefits payable at normal retirement age under the plan for any later plan year is not more than 133 1/3 percent of the annual rate at which he can accrue benefits for any plan year beginning on or after such particular plan year and before such later plan year. For purposes of this subparagraph -
        (i) any amendment to the plan which is in effect for the current year shall be treated as in effect for all other plan years;
        (ii) any change in an accrual rate which does not apply to any individual who is or could be a participant in the current year shall be disregarded;
        (iii) the fact that benefits under the plan may be payable to certain employees before normal retirement age shall be disregarded; and
        (iv) social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after the current year.
      (C) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if the accrued benefit to which any participant is entitled upon his separation from the service is not less than a fraction of the annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age to which he would be entitled under the plan as in effect on the date of his separation if he continued to earn annually until normal retirement age the same rate of compensation upon which his normal retirement benefit would be computed under the plan, determined as if he had attained normal retirement age on the date any such determination is made (but taking into account no more than the 10 years of service immediately preceding his separation from service). Such fraction shall be a fraction, not exceeding 1, the numerator of which is the total number of his years of participation in the plan (as of the date of his separation from the service) and the denominator of which is the total number of years he would have participated in the plan if he separated from the service at the normal retirement age. For purposes of this subparagraph, social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after such current year.
      (D) Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply with respect to years of participation before the first plan year to which this section applies but a defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph with respect to such years of participation only if the accrued benefit of any participant with respect to such years of participation is not less than the greater of -
        (i) his accrued benefit determined under the plan, as in effect from time to time prior to September 2, 1974, or
        (ii) an accrued benefit which is not less than one-half of the accrued benefit to which such participant would have been entitled if subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) applied with respect to such years of participation.
      (E) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, a plan shall not be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph solely because the accrual of benefits under the plan does not become effective until the employee has two continuous years of service. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "year of service" has the meaning provided by section 1052(a)(3)(A) of this title.
      (F) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), a defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if such plan
        (i) is funded exclusively by the purchase of insurance contracts, and
        (ii) satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 1081(b) of this title (relating to certain insurance contract plans),
but only if an employee's accrued benefit as of any applicable date is not less than the cash surrender value his insurance contracts would have on such applicable date if the requirements of paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of section 1081(b) of this title were satisfied.
      (G) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraphs, a defined benefit plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph if the participant's accrued benefit is reduced on account of any increase in his age or service. The preceding sentence shall not apply to benefits under the plan commencing before benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] which benefits under the plan -
        (i) do not exceed social security benefits, and
        (ii) terminate when such social security benefits commence.
      (H)(i) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraphs, a defined benefit plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph if, under the plan, an employee's benefit accrual is ceased, or the rate of an employee's benefit accrual is reduced, because of the attainment of any age.
      (ii) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subparagraph solely because the plan imposes (without regard to age) a limitation on the amount of benefits that the plan provides or a limitation on the number of years of service or years of participation which are taken into account for purposes of determining benefit accrual under the plan.
      (iii) In the case of any employee who, as of the end of any plan year under a defined benefit plan, has attained normal retirement age under such plan -
        (I) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has commenced as of the end of such plan year, then any requirement of this subparagraph for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of the actuarial equivalent of in-service distribution of benefits, and
        (II) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has not commenced as of the end of such year in accordance with section 1056(a)(3) of this title, and the payment of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee is not suspended during such plan year pursuant to section 1053(a)(3)(B) of this title, then any requirement of this subparagraph for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of any adjustment in the benefit payable under the plan during such plan year attributable to the delay in the distribution of benefits after the attainment of normal retirement age.

The preceding provisions of this clause shall apply in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury. Such regulations may provide for the application of the preceding provisions of this clause, in the case of any such employee, with respect to any period of time within a plan year.
      (iv) Clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any employee who is a highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q) of title 26) to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes of precluding discrimination in favor of highly compensated employees within the meaning of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26.
      (v) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of clause (i) solely because the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit is disregarded in determining benefit accruals.
      (vi) Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to clause (v) of section 411(b)(1)(H) of title 26 shall apply with respect to the requirements of this subparagraph in the same manner and to the same extent as such regulations apply with respect to the requirements of such section 411(b)(1)(H).
      (2)(A) A defined contribution plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if, under the plan, allocations to the employee's account are not ceased, and the rate at which amounts are allocated to the employee's account is not reduced, because of the attainment of any age.
      (B) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) solely because the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit is disregarded in determining benefit accruals.
      (C) Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 411(b)(2) of title 26 shall apply with respect to the requirements of this paragraph in the same manner and to the same extent as such regulations apply with respect to the requirements of such section 411(b)(2).
      (3) A plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if -
        (A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the plan requires separate accounting for the portion of each employee's accrued benefit derived from any voluntary employee contributions permitted under the plan; and
        (B) in the case of any plan which is not a defined benefit plan, the plan requires separate accounting for each employee's accrued benefit.
      (4)(A) For purposes of determining an employee's accrued benefit, the term "year of participation" means a period of service
    (beginning at the earliest date on which the employee is a participant in the plan and which is included in a period of service required to be taken into account under section 1052(b) of this title, determined without regard to section 1052(b)(5) of this title) as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary which provide for the calculation of such period on any reasonable and consistent basis.
      (B) For purposes of this paragraph, except as provided in subparagraph (C), in the case of any employee whose customary employment is less than full time, the calculation of such employee's service on any basis which provides less than a ratable portion of the accrued benefit to which he would be entitled under the plan if his customary employment were full time shall not be treated as made on a reasonable and consistent basis.
      (C) For purposes of this paragraph, in the case of any employee whose service is less than 1,000 hours during any calendar year, plan year or other 12-consecutive-month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) the calculation of his period of service shall not be treated as not made on a reasonable and consistent basis merely because such service is not taken into account.
      (D) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term "year of participation" shall be such period as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
      (E) For purposes of this subsection in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as a year of participation. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.
    (c) Employee's accrued benefits derived from employer and employee contributions
      (1) For purposes of this section and section 1053 of this title an employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions as of any applicable date is the excess (if any) of the accrued benefit for such employee as of such applicable date over the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by such employee as of such date.
      (2)(A) In the case of a plan other than a defined benefit plan, the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee as of any applicable date is -
        (i) except as provided in clause (ii), the balance of the employee's separate account consisting only of his contributions and the income, expenses, gains, and losses attributable thereto, or
        (ii) if a separate account is not maintained with respect to an employee's contributions under such a plan, the amount which bears the same ratio to his total accrued benefit as the total amount of the employee's contributions (less withdrawals) bears to the sum of such contributions and the contributions made on his behalf by the employer (less withdrawals).
      (B) Defined benefit plans. - In the case of a defined benefit plan, the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee as of any applicable date is the amount equal to the employee's accumulated contributions expressed as an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, using an interest rate which would be used under the plan under section 1055(g)(3) of this title
    (as of the determination date).
      (C) For purposes of this subsection, the term "accumulated contributions" means the total of -
        (i) all mandatory contributions made by the employee,
        (ii) interest (if any) under the plan to the end of the last plan year to which section 1053(a)(2) of this title does not apply (by reason of the applicable effective date), and
        (iii) interest on the sum of the amounts determined under clauses (i) and (ii) compounded annually -
          (I) at the rate of 120 percent of the Federal mid-term rate
        (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of a plan year for the period beginning with the 1st plan year to which subsection (a)(2) of this section applies by reason of the applicable effective date) and ending with the date on which the determination is being made, and
          (II) at the interest rate which would be used under the plan under section 1055(g)(3) of this title (as of the determination date) for the period beginning with the determination date and ending on the date on which the employee attains normal retirement age.

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "mandatory contributions" means amounts contributed to the plan by the employee which are required as a condition of employment, as a condition of participation in such plans, or as a condition of obtaining benefits under the plan attributable to employer contributions.
      (D) The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to adjust by regulation the conversion factor described in subparagraph (B) from time to time as he may deem necessary. No such adjustment shall be effective for a plan year beginning before the expiration of 1 year after such adjustment is determined and published.
      (3) For purposes of this section, in the case of any defined benefit plan, if an employee's accrued benefit is to be determined as an amount other than an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, or if the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee is to be determined with respect to a benefit other than an annual benefit in the form of a single life annuity (without ancillary benefits) commencing at normal retirement age, the employee's accrued benefit, or the accrued benefits derived from contributions made by an employee, as the case may be, shall be the actuarial equivalent of such benefit or amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2).
      (4) In the case of a defined benefit plan which permits voluntary employee contributions, the portion of an employee's accrued benefit derived from such contributions shall be treated as an accrued benefit derived from employee contributions under a plan other than a defined benefit plan.
    (d) Employee service which may be disregarded in determining employee's accrued benefits under plan Notwithstanding section 1053(b)(1) of this title, for purposes of determining the employee's accrued benefit under the plan, the plan may disregard service performed by the employee with respect to which he has received -
        (1) a distribution of the present value of his entire nonforfeitable benefit if such distribution was in an amount (not more than the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title) permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, or
        (2) a distribution of the present value of his nonforfeitable benefit attributable to such service which he elected to receive.
Paragraph (1) shall apply only if such distribution was made on termination of the employee's participation in the plan. Paragraph
    (2) shall apply only if such distribution was made on termination of the employee's participation in the plan or under such other circumstances as may be provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
    (e) Opportunity to repay full amount of distributions which have been reduced through disregarded employee service
For purposes of determining the employee's accrued benefit, the plan shall not disregard service as provided in subsection (d) of this section unless the plan provides an opportunity for the participant to repay the full amount of a distribution described in subsection (d) of this section with, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest at the rate determined for purposes of subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section and provides that upon such repayment the employee's accrued benefit shall be recomputed by taking into account service so disregarded. This subsection shall apply only in the case of a participant who -
        (1) received such a distribution in any plan year to which this section applies which distribution was less than the present value of his accrued benefit,
        (2) resumes employment covered under the plan, and
        (3) repays the full amount of such distribution with, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest at the rate determined for purposes of subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section.

The plan provision required under this subsection may provide that such repayment must be made (A) in the case of a withdrawal on account of separation from service, before the earlier of 5 years after the first date on which the participant is subsequently re-employed by the employer, or the close of the first period of 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service commencing after the withdrawal; or (B) in the case of any other withdrawal, 5 years after the date of the withdrawal.
    (f) Employer treated as maintaining a plan
For the purposes of this part, an employer shall be treated as maintaining a plan if any employee of such employer accrues benefits under such plan by reason of service with such employer.
    (g) Decrease of accrued benefits through amendment of plan
      (1) The accrued benefit of a participant under a plan may not be decreased by an amendment of the plan, other than an amendment described in section 1082(c)(8) or 1441 of this title.
      (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), a plan amendment which has the effect of -
        (A) eliminating or reducing an early retirement benefit or a retirement-type subsidy (as defined in regulations), or
        (B) eliminating an optional form of benefit,
with respect to benefits attributable to service before the amendment shall be treated as reducing accrued benefits. In the case of a retirement-type subsidy, the preceding sentence shall apply only with respect to a participant who satisfies (either before or after the amendment) the preamendment conditions for the subsidy. The Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulations provide that this paragraph shall not apply to any plan amendment which reduces or eliminates benefits or subsidies which create significant burdens or complexities for the plan and plan participants, unless such amendment adversely affects the rights of any participant in a more than de minimis manner. The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations provide that this subparagraph shall not apply to a plan amendment described in subparagraph (B)
    (other than a plan amendment having an effect described in subparagraph (A)).
      (3) For purposes of this subsection, any -
        (A) tax credit employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 409(a) of title 26, or
        (B) employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26),
shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because it modifies distribution options in a nondiscriminatory manner.
      (4)(A) A defined contribution plan (in this subparagraph referred to as the "transferee plan") shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because the transferee plan does not provide some or all of the forms of distribution previously available under another defined contribution plan (in this subparagraph referred to as the "transferor plan") to the extent that -
        (i) the forms of distribution previously available under the transferor plan applied to the account of a participant or beneficiary under the transferor plan that was transferred from the transferor plan to the transferee plan pursuant to a direct transfer rather than pursuant to a distribution from the transferor plan;
        (ii) the terms of both the transferor plan and the transferee plan authorize the transfer described in clause (i);
        (iii) the transfer described in clause (i) was made pursuant to a voluntary election by the participant or beneficiary whose account was transferred to the transferee plan;
        (iv) the election described in clause (iii) was made after the participant or beneficiary received a notice describing the consequences of making the election; and
        (v) the transferee plan allows the participant or beneficiary described in clause (iii) to receive any distribution to which the participant or beneficiary is entitled under the transferee plan in the form of a single sum distribution.
      (B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply to plan mergers and other transactions having the effect of a direct transfer, including consolidations of benefits attributable to different employers within a multiple employer plan.
      (5) Except to the extent provided in regulations promulgated by the Secretary of the Treasury, a defined contribution plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because of the elimination of a form of distribution previously available thereunder. This paragraph shall not apply to the elimination of a form of distribution with respect to any participant unless -
        (A) a single sum payment is available to such participant at the same time or times as the form of distribution being eliminated; and
        (B) such single sum payment is based on the same or greater portion of the participant's account as the form of distribution being eliminated.
    (h) Notice of significant reduction in benefit accruals
      (1) An applicable pension plan may not be amended so as to provide for a significant reduction in the rate of future benefit accrual unless the plan administrator provides the notice described in paragraph (2) to each applicable individual (and to each employee organization representing applicable individuals).
      (2) The notice required by paragraph (1) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall provide sufficient information (as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury) to allow applicable individuals to understand the effect of the plan amendment. The Secretary of the Treasury may provide a simplified form of notice for, or exempt from any notice requirement, a plan -
        (A) which has fewer than 100 participants who have accrued a benefit under the plan, or
        (B) which offers participants the option to choose between the new benefit formula and the old benefit formula.

      (3) Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the notice required by paragraph (1) shall be provided within a reasonable time before the effective date of the plan amendment.
      (4) Any notice under paragraph (1) may be provided to a person designated, in writing, by the person to which it would otherwise be provided.
      (5) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) merely because notice is provided before the adoption of the plan amendment if no material modification of the amendment occurs before the amendment is adopted.
      (6)(A) In the case of any egregious failure to meet any requirement of this subsection with respect to any plan amendment, the provisions of the applicable pension plan shall be applied as if such plan amendment entitled all applicable individuals to the greater of -
        (i) the benefits to which they would have been entitled without regard to such amendment, or
        (ii) the benefits under the plan with regard to such amendment.

      (B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), there is an egregious failure to meet the requirements of this subsection if such failure is within the control of the plan sponsor and is -
        (i) an intentional failure (including any failure to promptly provide the required notice or information after the plan administrator discovers an unintentional failure to meet the requirements of this subsection),
        (ii) a failure to provide most of the individuals with most of the information they are entitled to receive under this subsection, or
        (iii) a failure which is determined to be egregious under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

      (7) The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations allow any notice under this subsection to be provided by using new technologies.
      (8) For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) The term "applicable individual" means, with respect to any plan amendment -
          (i) each participant in the plan; and
          (ii) any beneficiary who is an alternate payee (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) under an applicable qualified domestic relations order (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title),
whose rate of future benefit accrual under the plan may reasonably be expected to be significantly reduced by such plan amendment.
        (B) The term "applicable pension plan" means -
          (i) any defined benefit plan; or
          (ii) an individual account plan which is subject to the funding standards of section 412 of title 26.

      (9) For purposes of this subsection, a plan amendment which eliminates or reduces any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy (within the meaning of subsection (g)(2)(A) of this section) shall be treated as having the effect of reducing the rate of future benefit accrual.
    (i) Prohibition on benefit increases where plan sponsor is in bankruptcy
      (1) In the case of a plan described in paragraph (3) which is maintained by an employer that is a debtor in a case under title 11 or similar Federal or State law, no amendment of the plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of -
        (A) any increase in benefits,
        (B) any change in the accrual of benefits, or
        (C) any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan,
with respect to employees of the debtor, shall be effective prior to the effective date of such employer's plan of reorganization.
      (2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any plan amendment that -
        (A) the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be reasonable and that provides for only de minimis increases in the liabilities of the plan with respect to employees of the debtor,
        (B) only repeals an amendment described in section 1082(c)(8) of this title,
        (C) is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26, or
        (D) was adopted prior to, or pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement entered into prior to, the date on which the employer became a debtor in a case under title 11 or similar Federal or State law.

      (3) This subsection shall apply only to plans (other than multiemployer plans) covered under section 1321 of this title for which the funded current liability percentage (within the meaning of section 1082(d)(8) of this title) is less than 100 percent after taking into account the effect of the amendment.
      (4) For purposes of this subsection, the term "employer" has the meaning set forth in section 1082(c)(11)(A) of this title, without regard to section 1082(c)(11)(B) of this title.
    (j) Cross reference
For special rules relating to plan provisions adopted to preclude discrimination, see section 1053(c)(2) of this title.

Sec. 1055. Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement survivor annuity

    (a) Required contents for applicable plans
Each pension plan to which this section applies shall provide that -
        (1) in the case of a vested participant who does not die before the annuity starting date, the accrued benefit payable to such participant shall be provided in the form of a qualified joint and survivor annuity, and
        (2) in the case of a vested participant who dies before the annuity starting date and who has a surviving spouse, a qualified preretirement survivor annuity shall be provided to the surviving spouse of such participant.
    (b) Applicable plans
      (1) This section shall apply to -
        (A) any defined benefit plan,
        (B) any individual account plan which is subject to the funding standards of section 1082 of this title, and
        (C) any participant under any other individual account plan unless -
          (i) such plan provides that the participant's nonforfeitable accrued benefit (reduced by any security interest held by the plan by reason of a loan outstanding to such participant) is payable in full, on the death of the participant, to the participant's surviving spouse (or, if there is no surviving spouse or the surviving spouse consents in the manner required under subsection (c)(2) of this section, to a designated beneficiary),
          (ii) such participant does not elect the payment of benefits in the form of a life annuity, and
          (iii) with respect to such participant, such plan is not a direct or indirect transferee (in a transfer after December 31, 1984) of a plan which is described in subparagraph (A) or (B) or to which this clause applied with respect to the participant.
Clause (iii) of subparagraph (C) shall apply only with respect to the transferred assets (and income therefrom) if the plan separately accounts for such assets and any income therefrom.
      (2)(A) In the case of -
        (i) a tax credit employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 409(a) of title 26), or
        (ii) an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26),
subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to that portion of the employee's accrued benefit to which the requirements of section 409(h) of title 26 apply.
      (B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any participant unless the requirements of clause (!1) (i), (ii), and
    (iii) of paragraph (1)(C) are met with respect to such participant.

      (4) (!2) This section shall not apply to a plan which the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate has determined is a plan described in section 404(c) of title 26 (or a continuation thereof) in which participation is substantially limited to individuals who, before January 1, 1976, ceased employment covered by the plan.

      (4) (!2) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(C) or (2) merely because the plan provides that benefits will not be payable to the surviving spouse of the participant unless the participant and such spouse had been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the earlier of the participant's annuity starting date or the date of the participant's death.
    (c) Plans meeting requirements of section
      (1) A plan meets the requirements of this section only if -
        (A) under the plan, each participant -
          (i) may elect at any time during the applicable election period to waive the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity form of benefit (or both), and
          (ii) may revoke any such election at any time during the applicable election period, and

        (B) the plan meets the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), and
      (4).

      (2) Each plan shall provide that an election under paragraph
    (1)(A)(i) shall not take effect unless -
        (A)(i) the spouse of the participant consents in writing to such election, (ii) such election designates a beneficiary (or a form of benefits) which may not be changed without spousal consent (or the consent of the spouse expressly permits designations by the participant without any requirement of further consent by the spouse), and (iii) the spouse's consent acknowledges the effect of such election and is witnessed by a plan representative or a notary public, or
        (B) it is established to the satisfaction of a plan representative that the consent required under subparagraph (A) may not be obtained because there is no spouse, because the spouse cannot be located, or because of such other circumstances as the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations prescribe.

Any consent by a spouse (or establishment that the consent of a spouse may not be obtained) under the preceding sentence shall be effective only with respect to such spouse.
      (3)(A) Each plan shall provide to each participant, within a reasonable period of time before the annuity starting date (and consistent with such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe) a written explanation of -
        (i) the terms and conditions of the qualified joint and survivor annuity,
        (ii) the participant's right to make, and the effect of, an election under paragraph (1) to waive the joint and survivor annuity form of benefit,
        (iii) the rights of the participant's spouse under paragraph
      (2), and
        (iv) the right to make, and the effect of, a revocation of an election under paragraph (1).

      (B)(i) Each plan shall provide to each participant, within the applicable period with respect to such participant (and consistent with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe), a written explanation with respect to the qualified preretirement survivor annuity comparable to that required under subparagraph (A).
      (ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term "applicable period" means, with respect to a participant, whichever of the following periods ends last:
        (I) The period beginning with the first day of the plan year in which the participant attains age 32 and ending with the close of the plan year preceding the plan year in which the participant attains age 35.
        (II) A reasonable period after the individual becomes a participant.
        (III) A reasonable period ending after paragraph (5) ceases to apply to the participant.
        (IV) A reasonable period ending after this section applies to the participant.

In the case of a participant who separates from service before attaining age 35, the applicable period shall be a reasonable period after separation.
      (4) Each plan shall provide that, if this section applies to a participant when part or all of the participant's accrued benefit is to be used as security for a loan, no portion of the participant's accrued benefit may be used as security for such loan unless -
        (A) the spouse of the participant (if any) consents in writing to such use during the 90-day period ending on the date on which the loan is to be so secured, and
        (B) requirements comparable to the requirements of paragraph
      (2) are met with respect to such consent.

      (5)(A) The requirements of this subsection shall not apply with respect to the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity form of benefit, as the case may be, if such benefit may not be waived (or another beneficiary selected) and if the plan fully subsidizes the costs of such benefit.
      (B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a plan fully subsidizes the costs of a benefit if under the plan the failure to waive such benefit by a participant would not result in a decrease in any plan benefits with respect to such participant and would not result in increased contributions from such participant.
      (6) If a plan fiduciary acts in accordance with part 4 of this subtitle in -
        (A) relying on a consent or revocation referred to in paragraph
      (1)(A), or
        (B) making a determination under paragraph (2),
then such consent, revocation, or determination shall be treated as valid for purposes of discharging the plan from liability to the extent of payments made pursuant to such Act.
      (7) For purposes of this subsection, the term "applicable election period" means -
        (A) in the case of an election to waive the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit, the 90-day period ending on the annuity starting date, or
        (B) in the case of an election to waive the qualified preretirement survivor annuity, the period which begins on the first day of the plan year in which the participant attains age 35 and ends on the date of the participant's death.

In the case of a participant who is separated from service, the applicable election period under subparagraph (B) with respect to benefits accrued before the date of such separation from service shall not begin later than such date.
      (8) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection -
        (A)(i) A plan may provide the written explanation described in paragraph (3)(A) after the annuity starting date. In any case to which this subparagraph applies, the applicable election period under paragraph (7) shall not end before the 30th day after the date on which such explanation is provided.
        (ii) The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations limit the application of clause (i), except that such regulations may not limit the period of time by which the annuity starting date precedes the provision of the written explanation other than by providing that the annuity starting date may not be earlier than termination of employment.
        (B) A plan may permit a participant to elect (with any applicable spousal consent) to waive any requirement that the written explanation be provided at least 30 days before the annuity starting date (or to waive the 30-day requirement under subparagraph (A)) if the distribution commences more than 7 days after such explanation is provided.
    (d) "Qualified joint and survivor annuity" defined
For purposes of this section, the term "qualified joint and survivor annuity" means an annuity -
        (1) for the life of the participant with a survivor annuity for the life of the spouse which is not less than 50 percent of (and is not greater than 100 percent of) the amount of the annuity which is payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse, and
        (2) which is the actuarial equivalent of a single annuity for the life of the participant.

Such term also includes any annuity in a form having the effect of an annuity described in the preceding sentence.
    (e) "Qualified preretirement survivor annuity" defined
For purposes of this section -
        (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term "qualified preretirement survivor annuity" means a survivor annuity for the life of the surviving spouse of the participant if -
          (A) the payments to the surviving spouse under such annuity are not less than the amounts which would be payable as a survivor annuity under the qualified joint and survivor annuity under the plan (or the actuarial equivalent thereof) if -
            (i) in the case of a participant who dies after the date on which the participant attained the earliest retirement age, such participant had retired with an immediate qualified joint and survivor annuity on the day before the participant's date of death, or
            (ii) in the case of a participant who dies on or before the date on which the participant would have attained the earliest retirement age, such participant had -
              (I) separated from service on the date of death,
              (II) survived to the earliest retirement age,
              (III) retired with an immediate qualified joint and survivor annuity at the earliest retirement age, and
              (IV) died on the day after the day on which such participant would have attained the earliest retirement age, and

          (B) under the plan, the earliest period for which the surviving spouse may receive a payment under such annuity is not later than the month in which the participant would have attained the earliest retirement age under the plan.

In the case of an individual who separated from service before the date of such individual's death, subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) shall not apply.
        (2) In the case of any individual account plan or participant described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (b)(1) of this section, the term "qualified preretirement survivor annuity" means an annuity for the life of the surviving spouse the actuarial equivalent of which is not less than 50 percent of the portion of the account balance of the participant (as of the date of death) to which the participant had a nonforfeitable right (within the meaning of section 1053 of this title).
        (3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), any security interest held by the plan by reason of a loan outstanding to the participant shall be taken into account in determining the amount of the qualified preretirement survivor annuity.
    (f) Marriage requirements for plan
      (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a plan may provide that a qualified joint and survivor annuity (or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity) will not be provided unless the participant and spouse had been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the earlier of -
        (A) the participant's annuity starting date, or
        (B) the date of the participant's death.

      (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), if -
        (A) a participant marries within 1 year before the annuity starting date, and
        (B) the participant and the participant's spouse in such marriage have been married for at least a 1-year period ending on or before the date of the participant's death,
such participant and such spouse shall be treated as having been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the participant's annuity starting date.
    (g) Distribution of present value of annuity; written consent; determination of present value
      (1) A plan may provide that the present value of a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity will be immediately distributed if such value does not exceed the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title. No distribution may be made under the preceding sentence after the annuity starting date unless the participant and the spouse of the participant (or where the participant has died, the surviving spouse) consent in writing to such distribution.
      (2) If -
        (A) the present value of the qualified joint and survivor annuity or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity exceeds the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title, and
        (B) the participant and the spouse of the participant (or where the participant has died, the surviving spouse) consent in writing to the distribution,
the plan may immediately distribute the present value of such annuity.
      (3) Determination of present value. -
        (A) In general. -
          (i) Present value. - Except as provided in subparagraph (B), for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the present value shall not be less than the present value calculated by using the applicable mortality table and the applicable interest rate.
          (ii) Definitions. - For purposes of clause (i) -
            (I) Applicable mortality table. - The term "applicable mortality table" means the table prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury. Such table shall be based on the prevailing commissioners' standard table (described in section 807(d)(5)(A) of title 26) used to determine reserves for group annuity contracts issued on the date as of which present value is being determined (without regard to any other subparagraph of section 807(d)(5) of such title).
            (II) Applicable interest rate. - The term "applicable interest rate" means the annual rate of interest on 30-year Treasury securities for the month before the date of distribution or such other time as the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations prescribe.

        (B) Exception. - In the case of a distribution from a plan that was adopted and in effect prior to December 8, 1994, the present value of any distribution made before the earlier of -
          (i) the later of when a plan amendment applying subparagraph (A) is adopted or made effective, or
          (ii) the first day of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1999,
shall be calculated, for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), using the interest rate determined under the regulations of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for determining the present value of a lump sum distribution on plan termination that were in effect on September 1, 1993, and using the provisions of the plan as in effect on the day before December 8, 1994; but only if such provisions of the plan met the requirements of this paragraph as in effect on the day before December 8, 1994.
    (h) Definitions
For purposes of this section -
        (1) The term "vested participant" means any participant who has a nonforfeitable right (within the meaning of section 1002(19) of this title) to any portion of such participant's accrued benefit.
        (2)(A) The term "annuity starting date" means -
          (i) the first day of the first period for which an amount is payable as an annuity, or
          (ii) in the case of a benefit not payable in the form of an annuity, the first day on which all events have occurred which entitle the participant to such benefit.

        (B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the first day of the first period for which a benefit is to be received by reason of disability shall be treated as the annuity starting date only if such benefit is not an auxiliary benefit.
        (3) The term "earliest retirement age" means the earliest date on which, under the plan, the participant could elect to receive retirement benefits.
    (i) Increased costs from providing annuity
A plan may take into account in any equitable manner (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) any increased costs resulting from providing a qualified joint or survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity.
    (j) Use of participant's accrued benefit as security for loan as not preventing distribution
If the use of any participant's accrued benefit (or any portion thereof) as security for a loan meets the requirements of subsection (c)(4) of this section, nothing in this section shall prevent any distribution required by reason of a failure to comply with the terms of such loan.
    (k) Spousal consent No consent of a spouse shall be effective for purposes of subsection (g)(1) or (g)(2) of this section (as the case may be) unless requirements comparable to the requirements for spousal consent to an election under subsection (c)(1)(A) of this section are met.
    (l) Regulations; consultation of Secretary of the Treasury with Secretary of Labor
In prescribing regulations under this section, the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with the Secretary of Labor.

    (!1) So in original. Probably should be "clauses".

    (!2) So in original. There are two pars. designated (4) and no par. (3).

Sec. 1056. Form and payment of benefits

    (a) Commencement date for payment of benefits
Each pension plan shall provide that unless the participant otherwise elects, the payment of benefits under the plan to the participant shall begin not later than the 60th day after the latest of the close of the plan year in which -
        (1) occurs the date on which the participant attains the earlier of age 65 or the normal retirement age specified under the plan,
        (2) occurs the 10th anniversary of the year in which the participant commenced participation in the plan, or
        (3) the participant terminates his service with the employer.

In the case of a plan which provides for the payment of an early retirement benefit, such plan shall provide that a participant who satisfied the service requirements for such early retirement benefit, but separated from the service (with any nonforfeitable right to an accrued benefit) before satisfying the age requirement for such early retirement benefit, is entitled upon satisfaction of such age requirement to receive a benefit not less than the benefit to which he would be entitled at the normal retirement age, actuarially reduced under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
    (b) Decrease in plan benefits by reason of increases in benefit levels under Social Security Act or Railroad Retirement Act of 1937
If -
        (1) a participant or beneficiary is receiving benefits under a pension plan, or
        (2) a participant is separated from the service and has non-forfeitable rights to benefits,
a plan may not decrease benefits of such a participant by reason of any increase in the benefit levels payable under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.] or any increase in the wage base under such title II, if such increase takes place after September 2, 1974, or (if later) the earlier of the date of first entitlement of such benefits or the date of such separation.
    (c) Forfeiture of accrued benefits derived from employer contributions No pension plan may provide that any part of a participant's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions (whether or not otherwise nonforfeitable) is forfeitable solely because of withdrawal by such participant of any amount attributable to the benefit derived from contributions made by such participant. The preceding sentence shall not apply (1) to the accrued benefit of any participant unless, at the time of such withdrawal, such participant has a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of such accrued benefit, or (2) to the extent that an accrued benefit is permitted to be forfeited in accordance with section 1053(a)(3)(D)(iii) of this title.
    (d) Assignment or alienation of plan benefits
      (1) Each pension plan shall provide that benefits provided under the plan may not be assigned or alienated.
      (2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall not be taken into account any voluntary and revocable assignment of not to exceed 10 percent of any benefit payment, or of any irrevocable assignment or alienation of benefits executed before September 2, 1974. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any assignment or alienation made for the purposes of defraying plan administration costs. For purposes of this paragraph a loan made to a participant or beneficiary shall not be treated as an assignment or alienation if such loan is secured by the participant's accrued non-forfeitable benefit and is exempt from the tax imposed by section 4975 of title 26 (relating to tax on prohibited transactions) by reason of section 4975(d)(1) of title 26.
      (3)(A) Paragraph (1) shall apply to the creation, assignment, or recognition of a right to any benefit payable with respect to a participant pursuant to a domestic relations order, except that paragraph (1) shall not apply if the order is determined to be a qualified domestic relations order. Each pension plan shall provide for the payment of benefits in accordance with the applicable requirements of any qualified domestic relations order.
      (B) For purposes of this paragraph -
        (i) the term "qualified domestic relations order" means a domestic relations order -
          (I) which creates or recognizes the existence of an alternate payee's right to, or assigns to an alternate payee the right to, receive all or a portion of the benefits payable with respect to a participant under a plan, and
          (II) with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs
        (C) and (D) are met, and

        (ii) the term "domestic relations order" means any judgment, decree, or order (including approval of a property settlement agreement) which -
          (I) relates to the provision of child support, alimony payments, or marital property rights to a spouse, former spouse, child, or other dependent of a participant, and
          (II) is made pursuant to a State domestic relations law
        (including a community property law).

      (C) A domestic relations order meets the requirements of this subparagraph only if such order clearly specifies -
        (i) the name and the last known mailing address (if any) of the participant and the name and mailing address of each alternate payee covered by the order,
        (ii) the amount or percentage of the participant's benefits to be paid by the plan to each such alternate payee, or the manner in which such amount or percentage is to be determined,
        (iii) the number of payments or period to which such order applies, and
        (iv) each plan to which such order applies.

      (D) A domestic relations order meets the requirements of this subparagraph only if such order -
        (i) does not require a plan to provide any type or form of benefit, or any option, not otherwise provided under the plan,
        (ii) does not require the plan to provide increased benefits
      (determined on the basis of actuarial value), and
        (iii) does not require the payment of benefits to an alternate payee which are required to be paid to another alternate payee under another order previously determined to be a qualified domestic relations order.

      (E)(i) A domestic relations order shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of clause (i) of subparagraph (D) solely because such order requires that payment of benefits be made to an alternate payee -
        (I) in the case of any payment before a participant has separated from service, on or after the date on which the participant attains (or would have attained) the earliest retirement age,
        (II) as if the participant had retired on the date on which such payment is to begin under such order (but taking into account only the present value of benefits actually accrued and not taking into account the present value of any employer subsidy for early retirement), and
        (III) in any form in which such benefits may be paid under the plan to the participant (other than in the form of a joint and survivor annuity with respect to the alternate payee and his or her subsequent spouse).

For purposes of subclause (II), the interest rate assumption used in determining the present value shall be the interest rate specified in the plan or, if no rate is specified, 5 percent.
      (ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "earliest retirement age" means the earlier of -
        (I) the date on which the participant is entitled to a distribution under the plan, or
        (II) the later of the date of the participant attains age 50 or the earliest date on which the participant could begin receiving benefits under the plan if the participant separated from service.

      (F) To the extent provided in any qualified domestic relations order -
        (i) the former spouse of a participant shall be treated as a surviving spouse of such participant for purposes of section 1055 of this title (and any spouse of the participant shall not be treated as a spouse of the participant for such purposes), and
        (ii) if married for at least 1 year, the surviving former spouse shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 1055(f) of this title.

      (G)(i) In the case of any domestic relations order received by a plan -
        (I) the plan administrator shall promptly notify the participant and each alternate payee of the receipt of such order and the plan's procedures for determining the qualified status of domestic relations orders, and
        (II) within a reasonable period after receipt of such order, the plan administrator shall determine whether such order is a qualified domestic relations order and notify the participant and each alternate payee of such determination.

      (ii) Each plan shall establish reasonable procedures to determine the qualified status of domestic relations orders and to administer distributions under such qualified orders. Such procedures -
        (I) shall be in writing,
        (II) shall provide for the notification of each person specified in a domestic relations order as entitled to payment of benefits under the plan (at the address included in the domestic relations order) of such procedures promptly upon receipt by the plan of the domestic relations order, and
        (III) shall permit an alternate payee to designate a representative for receipt of copies of notices that are sent to the alternate payee with respect to a domestic relations order.

      (H)(i) During any period in which the issue of whether a domestic relations order is a qualified domestic relations order is being determined (by the plan administrator, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or otherwise), the plan administrator shall separately account for the amounts (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the "segregated amounts") which would have been payable to the alternate payee during such period if the order had been determined to be a qualified domestic relations order.
      (ii) If within the 18-month period described in clause (v) the order (or modification thereof) is determined to be a qualified domestic relations order, the plan administrator shall pay the segregated amounts (including any interest thereon) to the person or persons entitled thereto.
      (iii) If within the 18-month period described in clause (v) -
        (I) it is determined that the order is not a qualified domestic relations order, or
        (II) the issue as to whether such order is a qualified domestic relations order is not resolved,
then the plan administrator shall pay the segregated amounts
    (including any interest thereon) to the person or persons who would have been entitled to such amounts if there had been no order.
      (iv) Any determination that an order is a qualified domestic relations order which is made after the close of the 18-month period described in clause (v) shall be applied prospectively only.
      (v) For purposes of this subparagraph, the 18-month period described in this clause is the 18-month period beginning with the date on which the first payment would be required to be made under the domestic relations order.
      (I) If a plan fiduciary acts in accordance with part 4 of this subtitle in -
        (i) treating a domestic relations order as being (or not being) a qualified domestic relations order, or
        (ii) taking action under subparagraph (H),
then the plan's obligation to the participant and each alternate payee shall be discharged to the extent of any payment made pursuant to such Act.
      (J) A person who is an alternate payee under a qualified domestic relations order shall be considered for purposes of any provision of this chapter a beneficiary under the plan. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall permit a requirement under section 1301 of this title of the payment of more than 1 premium with respect to a participant for any period.
      (K) The term "alternate payee" means any spouse, former spouse, child, or other dependent of a participant who is recognized by a domestic relations order as having a right to receive all, or a portion of, the benefits payable under a plan with respect to such participant.
      (L) This paragraph shall not apply to any plan to which paragraph
    (1) does not apply.
      (M) Payment of benefits by a pension plan in accordance with the applicable requirements of a qualified domestic relations order shall not be treated as garnishment for purposes of section 1673(a) of title 15.
      (N) In prescribing regulations under this paragraph, the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of the Treasury.
      (4) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any offset of a participant's benefits provided under an employee pension benefit plan against an amount that the participant is ordered or required to pay to the plan if -
        (A) the order or requirement to pay arises -
          (i) under a judgment of conviction for a crime involving such plan,
          (ii) under a civil judgment (including a consent order or decree) entered by a court in an action brought in connection with a violation (or alleged violation) of part 4 of this subtitle, or
          (iii) pursuant to a settlement agreement between the
Secretary and the participant, or a settlement agreement between the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and the participant, in connection with a violation (or alleged violation) of part 4 of this subtitle by a fiduciary or any other person,

        (B) the judgment, order, decree, or settlement agreement expressly provides for the offset of all or part of the amount ordered or required to be paid to the plan against the participant's benefits provided under the plan, and
        (C) in a case in which the survivor annuity requirements of section 1055 of this title apply with respect to distributions from the plan to the participant, if the participant has a spouse at the time at which the offset is to be made -
          (i) either -
            (I) such spouse has consented in writing to such offset and such consent is witnessed by a notary public or representative of the plan (or it is established to the satisfaction of a plan representative that such consent may not be obtained by reason of circumstances described in section 1055(c)(2)(B) of this title), or
            (II) an election to waive the right of the spouse to a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity is in effect in accordance with the requirements of section 1055(c) of this title,

          (ii) such spouse is ordered or required in such judgment, order, decree, or settlement to pay an amount to the plan in connection with a violation of part 4 of this subtitle, or
          (iii) in such judgment, order, decree, or settlement, such spouse retains the right to receive the survivor annuity under a qualified joint and survivor annuity provided pursuant to section 1055(a)(1) of this title and under a qualified preretirement survivor annuity provided pursuant to section 1055(a)(2) of this title, determined in accordance with paragraph (5).

A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of section 1055 of this title solely by reason of an offset under this paragraph.
      (5)(A) The survivor annuity described in paragraph (4)(C)(iii) shall be determined as if -
        (i) the participant terminated employment on the date of the offset,
        (ii) there was no offset,
        (iii) the plan permitted commencement of benefits only on or after normal retirement age,
        (iv) the plan provided only the minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity, and
        (v) the amount of the qualified preretirement survivor annuity under the plan is equal to the amount of the survivor annuity payable under the minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity.

      (B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity" means the qualified joint and survivor annuity which is the actuarial equivalent of the participant's accrued benefit (within the meaning of section 1002(23) of this title) and under which the survivor annuity is 50 percent of the amount of the annuity which is payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse.
    (e) Limitation on distributions other than life annuities paid by plan
      (1) In general Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the fiduciary of a pension plan that is subject to the additional funding requirements of section 1082(d) of this title shall not permit a prohibited payment to be made from a plan during a period in which such plan has a liquidity shortfall (as defined in section 1082(e)(5) of this title).
      (2) Prohibited payment
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "prohibited payment" means -
          (A) any payment, in excess of the monthly amount paid under a single life annuity (plus any social security supplements described in the last sentence of section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title), to a participant or beneficiary whose annuity starting date (as defined in section 1055(h)(2) of this title), that occurs during the period referred to in paragraph (1),
          (B) any payment for the purchase of an irrevocable commitment from an insurer to pay benefits, and
          (C) any other payment specified by the Secretary of the Treasury by regulations.
      (3) Period of shortfall
For purposes of this subsection, a plan has a liquidity shortfall during the period that there is an underpayment of an installment under section 1082(e) of this title by reason of paragraph (5)(A) thereof.
      (4) Coordination with other provisions Compliance with this subsection shall not constitute a violation of any other provision of this chapter.
    (f) Missing participants in terminated plans
In the case of a plan covered by subchapter III of this chapter, the plan shall provide that, upon termination of the plan, benefits of missing participants shall be treated in accordance with section 1350 of this title.

Sec. 1057. Temporary variances from certain vesting requirements

In the case of any plan maintained on January 1, 1974, if not later than 2 years after September 2, 1974, the administrator petitions the Secretary, the Secretary may prescribe an alternate method which shall be treated as satisfying the requirements of section 1053(a)(2) or 1054(b)(1) (other than subparagraph (D) thereof) of this title or both for a period of not more than 4 years. The Secretary may prescribe such alternate method only when he finds that -
        (1) the application of such requirements would increase the costs of the plan to such an extent that there would result a substantial risk to the voluntary continuation of the plan or a substantial curtailment of benefit levels or the levels of employees' compensation.
        (2) the application of such requirements or discontinuance of the plan would be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate, and
        (3) a waiver or extension of time granted under section 1083 or 1084 of this title would be inadequate.

In the case of any plan with respect to which an alternate method has been prescribed under the preceding provisions of this subsection for a period of not more than 4 years, if, not later than 1 year before the expiration of such period, the administrator petitions the Secretary for an extension of such alternate method, and the Secretary makes the findings required by the preceding sentence, such alternate method may be extended for not more than 3 years.

Sec. 1058. Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets

A pension plan may not merge or consolidate with, or transfer its assets or liabilities to, any other plan after September 2, 1974, unless each participant in the plan would (if the plan then terminated) receive a benefit immediately after the merger, consolidation, or transfer which is equal to or greater than the benefit he would have been entitled to receive immediately before the merger, consolidation, or transfer (if the plan had then terminated). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any transaction to the extent that participants either before or after the transaction are covered under a multiemployer plan to which subchapter III of this chapter applies.

Sec. 1059. Recordkeeping and reporting requirements

      (a)(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2) every employer shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, maintain records with respect to each of his employees sufficient to determine the benefits due or which may become due to such employees. The plan administrator shall make a report, in such manner and at such time as may be provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to each employee who is a participant under the plan and who -
        (A) requests such report, in such manner and at such time as may be provided in such regulations,
        (B) terminates his service with the employer, or
        (C) has a 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title).

The employer shall furnish to the plan administrator the information necessary for the administrator to make the reports required by the preceding sentence. Not more than one report shall be required under subparagraph (A) in any 12-month period. Not more than one report shall be required under subparagraph (C) with respect to consecutive 1-year breaks in service. The report required under this paragraph shall be sufficient to inform the employee of his accrued benefits under the plan and the percentage of such benefits which are nonforfeitable under the plan.
      (2) If more than one employer adopts a plan, each such employer shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, furnish to the plan administrator the information necessary for the administrator to maintain the records and make the reports required by paragraph (1). Such administrator shall maintain the records and, to the extent provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, make the reports, required by paragraph (1).
      (b) If any person who is required, under subsection (a) of this section, to furnish information or maintain records for any plan year fails to comply with such requirement, he shall pay to the Secretary a civil penalty of $10 for each employee with respect to whom such failure occurs, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

Sec. 1060. Multiple employer plans

    (a) Plan maintained by more than one employer Notwithstanding any other provision of this part or part 3, the following provisions of this subsection shall apply to a plan maintained by more than one employer:
        (1) Section 1052 of this title shall be applied as if all employees of each of the employers were employed by a single employer.
        (2) Sections 1053 and 1054 of this title shall be applied as if all such employers constituted a single employer, except that the application of any rules with respect to breaks in service shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
        (3) The minimum funding standard provided by section 1082 of this title shall be determined as if all participants in the plan were employed by a single employer.
    (b) Maintenance of plan of predecessor employer
For purposes of this part and part 3 -
        (1) in any case in which the employer maintains a plan of a predecessor employer, service for such predecessor shall be treated as service for the employer, and
        (2) in any case in which the employer maintains a plan which is not the plan maintained by a predecessor employer, service for such predecessor shall, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, be treated as service for the employer.
    (c) Plan maintained by controlled group of corporations
For purposes of sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title, all employees of all corporations which are members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a) of title 26, determined without regard to section 1563(a)(4) and
    (e)(3)(C) of title 26) shall be treated as employed by a single employer. With respect to a plan adopted by more than one such corporation, the minimum funding standard of section 1082 of this title shall be determined as if all such employers were a single employer, and allocated to each employer in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
    (d) Plan of trades or businesses under common control
For purposes of sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, all employees of trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) which are under common control shall be treated as employed by a single employer. The regulations prescribed under this subsection shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subsection (c) of this section.

Sec. 1061. Effective dates

      (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after September 2, 1974.
      (b)(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section, sections 1055, 1056(d) and 1058 of this title shall apply with respect to plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.
      (2) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section in the case of a plan in existence on January 1, 1974, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.
      (c)(1) In the case of a plan maintained on January 1, 1974, pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements between employee organizations and one or more employers, no plan shall be treated as not meeting the requirements of sections 1054 and 1055 of this title by reason of a supplementary or special plan provision (within the meaning of paragraph (2)) for any plan year before the year which begins after the earlier of -
        (A) the date on which the last of such agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after September 2, 1974), or
        (B) December 31, 1980.

For purposes of subparagraph (A) and section 1086(c) (!1) of this title, any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement contained in this chapter or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement. This paragraph shall not apply unless the Secretary determines that the participation and vesting rules in effect on September 2, 1974, are not less favorable to participants, in the aggregate, than the rules provided under sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title.

      (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "supplementary or special plan provision" means any plan provision which -
        (A) provides supplementary benefits, not in excess of one-third of the basic benefit, in the form of an annuity for the life of the participant, or
        (B) provides that, under a contractual agreement based on medical evidence as to the effects of working in an adverse environment for an extended period of time, a participant having 25 years of service is to be treated as having 30 years of service.

      (3) This subsection shall apply with respect to a plan if (and only if) the application of this subsection results in a later effective date for this part than the effective date required by subsection (b) of this section.
      (d) If the administrator of a plan elects under section 1017(d) of this Act to make applicable to a plan year and to all subsequent plan years the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to participation, vesting, funding, and form of benefit, this part shall apply to the first plan year to which such election applies and to all subsequent plan years.
      (e)(1) No pension plan to which section 1052 of this title applies may make effective any plan amendment with respect to breaks in service (which amendment is made or becomes effective after January 1, 1974, and before the date on which section 1052 of this title first becomes effective with respect to such plan) which provides that any employee's participation in the plan would commence at any date later than the later of -
        (A) the date on which his participation would commence under the break in service rules of section 1052(b) of this title, or
        (B) the date on which his participation would commence under the plan as in effect on January 1, 1974.

      (2) No pension plan to which section 1053 of this title applies may make effective any plan amendment with respect to breaks in service (which amendment is made or becomes effective after January 1, 1974, and before the date on which section 1053 of this title first becomes effective with respect to such plan) if such amendment provides that the nonforfeitable benefit derived from employer contributions to which any employee would be entitled is less than the lesser of the nonforfeitable benefit derived from employer contributions to which he would be entitled under -
        (A) the break in service rules of section 1052(b)(3) of this title, or
        (B) the plan as in effect on January 1, 1974.

Subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the break in service rules under the plan would have been in violation of any law or rule of law in effect on January 1, 1974.
      (f) The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after September 2, 1974.

    (!1) See References in Text note below.

PART 3 - FUNDING

Sec. 1081. Coverage

    (a) Plans excepted from applicability of this part
This part shall apply to any employee pension benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title, (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title), other than -
        (1) an employee welfare benefit plan;
        (2) an insurance contract plan described in subsection (b) of this section;
        (3) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees;
        (4)(A) a plan which is established and maintained by a society, order, or association described in section 501(c)(8) or (9) of title 26, if no part of the contributions to or under such plan are made by employers of participants in such plan; or
        (B) a trust described in section 501(c)(18) of title 26;
        (5) a plan which has not at any time after September 2, 1974, provided for employer contributions;
        (6) an agreement providing payments to a retired partner or deceased partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest as described in section 736 of title 26;
        (7) an individual retirement account or annuity as described in section 408(a) of title 26, or a retirement bond described in section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984);
        (8) an individual account plan (other than a money purchase plan) and a defined benefit plan to the extent it is treated as an individual account plan (other than a money purchase plan) under section 1002(35)(B) of this title;
        (9) an excess benefit plan; or
        (10) any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.
    (b) "Insurance contract plan" defined
For the purposes of paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section a plan is an "insurance contract plan" if -
        (1) the plan is funded exclusively by the purchase of individual insurance contracts,
        (2) such contracts provide for level annual premium payments to be paid extending not later than the retirement age for each individual participating in the plan, and commencing with the date the individual became a participant in the plan (or, in the case of an increase in benefits, commencing at the time such increase became effective),
        (3) benefits provided by the plan are equal to the benefits provided under each contract at normal retirement age under the plan and are guaranteed by an insurance carrier (licensed under the laws of a State to do business with the plan) to the extent premiums have been paid,
        (4) premiums payable for the plan year, and all prior plan years under such contracts have been paid before lapse or there is reinstatement of the policy,
        (5) no rights under such contracts have been subject to a security interest at any time during the plan year, and
        (6) no policy loans are outstanding at any time during the plan year.

A plan funded exclusively by the purchase of group insurance contracts which is determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury to have the same characteristics as contracts described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as a plan described in this subsection.
    (c) Applicability of this part to terminated multiemployer plans
This part applies, with respect to a terminated multiemployer plan to which section 1321 of this title applies, until the last day of the plan year in which the plan terminates, within the meaning of section 1341a(a)(2) of this title.
    (d) Financial assistance from Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
Any amount of any financial assistance from the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to any plan, and any repayment of such amount, shall be taken into account under this section in such manner as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 1082. Minimum funding standards

    (a) Avoidance of accumulated funding deficiency
      (1) Every employee pension benefit plan subject to this part shall satisfy the minimum funding standard (or the alternative minimum funding standard under section 1085 of this title) for any plan year to which this part applies. A plan to which this part applies shall have satisfied the minimum funding standard for such plan for a plan year if as of the end of such plan year the plan does not have an accumulated funding deficiency.
      (2) For the purposes of this part, the term "accumulated funding deficiency" means for any plan the excess of the total charges to the funding standard account for all plan years (beginning with the first plan year to which this part applies) over the total credits to such account for such years or, if less, the excess of the total charges to the alternative minimum funding standard account for such plan years over the total credits to such account for such years.
      (3) In any plan year in which a multiemployer plan is in reorganization, the accumulated funding deficiency of the plan shall be determined under section 1423 of this title.
    (b) Funding standard account
      (1) Each plan to which this part applies shall establish and maintain a funding standard account. Such account shall be credited and charged solely as provided in this section.
      (2) For a plan year, the funding standard account shall be charged with the sum of -
        (A) the normal cost of the plan for the plan year,
        (B) the amounts necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) -
          (i) in the case of a plan in existence on January 1, 1974, the unfunded past service liability under the plan on the first day of the first plan year to which this part applies, over a period of 40 plan years,
          (ii) in the case of a plan which comes into existence after January 1, 1974, the unfunded past service liability under the plan on the first day of the first plan year to which this part applies, over a period of 30 plan years,
          (iii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net increase (if any) in unfunded past service liability under the plan arising from plan amendments adopted in such year, over a period of 30 plan years,
          (iv) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net experience loss (if any) under the plan, over a period of 5 plan years (15 plan years in the case of a multiemployer plan), and
          (v) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net loss
        (if any) resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions used under the plan, over a period of 10 plan years (30 plan years in the case of a multiemployer plan),

        (C) the amount necessary to amortize each waived funding deficiency (within the meaning of section 1083(c) of this title) for each prior plan year in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 5 plan years (15 plan years in the case of a multiemployer plan),
        (D) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 5 plan years any amount credited to the funding standard account under paragraph (3)(D), and
        (E) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 20 years the contributions which would be required to be made under the plan but for the provisions of subsection (c)(7)(A)(i)(I) of this section.

      (3) For a plan year, the funding standard account shall be credited with the sum of -
        (A) the amount considered contributed by the employer to or under the plan for the plan year,
        (B) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) -
          (i) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net decrease (if any) in unfunded past service liability under the plan arising from plan amendments adopted in such year, over a period of 30 plan years,
          (ii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net experience gain (if any) under the plan, over a period of 5 plan years (15 plan years in the case of a multiemployer plan), and
          (iii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net gain (if any) resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions used under the plan, over a period of 10 plan years (30 plan years in the case of a multiemployer plan),

        (C) the amount of the waived funding deficiency (within the meaning of section 1083(c) of this title) for the plan year, and
        (D) in the case of a plan year for which the accumulated funding deficiency is determined under the funding standard account if such plan year follows a plan year for which such deficiency was determined under the alternative minimum funding standard, the excess (if any) of any debit balance in the funding standard account (determined without regard to this subparagraph) over any debit balance in the alternative minimum funding standard account.

      (4) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, amounts required to be amortized under paragraph (2) or paragraph (3), as the case may be -
        (A) may be combined into one amount under such paragraph to be amortized over a period determined on the basis of the remaining amortization period for all items entering into such combined amount, and
        (B) may be offset against amounts required to be amortized under the other such paragraph, with the resulting amount to be amortized over a period determined on the basis of the remaining amortization periods for all items entering into whichever of the two amounts being offset is the greater.

      (5) Interest. -
        (A) In general. - The funding standard account (and items therein) shall be charged or credited (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury) with interest at the appropriate rate consistent with the rate or rates of interest used under the plan to determine costs.
        (B) Required change of interest rate. - For purposes of determining a plan's current liability and for purposes of determining a plan's required contribution under subsection (d) of this section for any plan year -
          (i) In general. - If any rate of interest used under the plan to determine cost is not within the permissible range, the plan shall establish a new rate of interest within the permissible range.
          (ii) Permissible range. - For purposes of this subparagraph -

            (I) In general. - Except as provided in subclause (II), the term "permissible range" means a rate of interest which is not more than 10 percent above, and not more than 10 percent below, the the (!1) weighted average of the rates of interest on 30-year Treasury securities during the 4-year period ending on the last day before the beginning of the plan year.

            (II) Secretarial authority. - If the Secretary finds that the lowest rate of interest permissible under subclause (I) is unreasonably high, the Secretary may prescribe a lower rate of interest, except that such rate may not be less than 80 percent of the average rate determined under subclause
          (I).

          (iii) Assumptions. - Notwithstanding subsection (c)(3)(A)(i) of this section, the interest rate used under the plan shall be -
            (I) determined without taking into account the experience of the plan and reasonable expectations, but
            (II) consistent with the assumptions which reflect the purchase rates which would be used by insurance companies to satisfy the liabilities under the plan.

      (6) In the case of a plan which, immediately before September 26, 1980, was a multiemployer plan (within the meaning of section 1002(37) of this title as in effect immediately before such date) -

        (A) any amount described in paragraph (2)(B)(ii), (2)(B)(iii), or (3)(B)(i) of this subsection which arose in a plan year beginning before such date shall be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 40 plan years, beginning with the plan year in which the amount arose;
        (B) any amount described in paragraph (2)(B)(iv) or (3)(B)(ii) of this subsection which arose in a plan year beginning before such date shall be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 20 plan years, beginning with the plan year in which the amount arose;
        (C) any change in past service liability which arises during the period of 3 plan years beginning on or after such date, and results from a plan amendment adopted before such date, shall be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 40 plan years, beginning with the plan year in which the change arises; and
        (D) any change in past service liability which arises during the period of 2 plan years beginning on or after such date, and results from the changing of a group of participants from one benefit level to another benefit level under a schedule of plan benefits which -
          (i) was adopted before such date, and
          (ii) was effective for any plan participant before the beginning of the first plan year beginning on or after such date,
shall be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 40 plan years, beginning with the plan year in which the increase arises.

      (7) For purposes of this part -
        (A) Any amount received by a multiemployer plan in payment of all or part of an employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter shall be considered an amount contributed by the employer to or under the plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe by regulation additional charges and credits to a multiemployer plan's funding standard account to the extent necessary to prevent withdrawal liability payments from being unduly reflected as advance funding for plan liabilities.
        (B) If a plan is not in reorganization in the plan year but was in reorganization in the immediately preceding plan year, any balance in the funding standard account at the close of such immediately preceding plan year -
          (i) shall be eliminated by an offsetting credit or charge (as the case may be), but
          (ii) shall be taken into account in subsequent plan years by being amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 30 plan years.

The preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent of any accumulated funding deficiency under section 418B(a) of title 26 as of the end of the last plan year that the plan was in reorganization.
        (C) Any amount paid by a plan during a plan year to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation pursuant to section 1402 of this title or to a fund exempt under section 501(c)(22) of title 26 pursuant to section 1403 of this title shall reduce the amount of contributions considered received by the plan for the plan year.
        (D) Any amount paid by an employer pending a final determination of the employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter and subsequently refunded to the employer by the plan shall be charged to the funding standard account in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
        (E) For purposes of the full funding limitation under subsection (c)(7) of this section, unless otherwise provided by the plan, the accrued liability under a multiemployer plan shall not include benefits which are not nonforfeitable under the plan after the termination of the plan (taking into consideration section 411(d)(3) of title 26).
    (c) Methods
      (1) For purposes of this part, normal costs, accrued liability, past service liabilities, and experience gains and losses shall be determined under the funding method used to determine costs under the plan.
      (2)(A) For purposes of this part, the value of the plan's assets shall be determined on the basis of any reasonable actuarial method of valuation which takes into account fair market value and which is permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
      (B) For purposes of this part, the value of a bond or other evidence of indebtedness which is not in default as to principal or interest may, at the election of the plan administrator, be determined on an amortized basis running from initial cost at purchase to par value at maturity or earliest call date. Any election under this subparagraph shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulations provide, shall apply to all such evidences of indebtedness, and may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury.
In the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, this subparagraph shall not apply, but the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations provide that the value of any dedicated bond portfolio of such plan shall be determined by using the interest rate under subsection (b)(5) of this section.
      (3) For purposes of this section, all costs, liabilities, rates of interest, and other factors under the plan shall be determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions and methods -
        (A) in the case of -
          (i) a plan other than a multiemployer plan, each of which is reasonable (taking into account the experience of the plan and reasonable expectations) or which, in the aggregate, result in a total contribution equivalent to that which would be determined if each such assumption and method were reasonable, or
          (ii) a multiemployer plan, which, in the aggregate, are reasonable (taking into account the experiences of the plan and reasonable expectations), and

        (B) which, in combination, offer the actuary's best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.

      (4) For purposes of this section, if -
        (A) a change in benefits under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or in other retirement benefits created under Federal or State law, or
        (B) a change in the definition of the term "wages" under section 3121 of title 26, or a change in the amount of such wages taken into account under regulations prescribed for purposes of section 401(a)(5) of title 26,
results in an increase or decrease in accrued liability under a plan, such increase or decrease shall be treated as an experience loss or gain.
      (5)(A) In general. - If the funding method for a plan is changed, the new funding method shall become the funding method used to determine costs and liabilities under the plan only if the change is approved by the Secretary of the Treasury. If the plan year for a plan is changed, the new plan year shall become the plan year for the plan only if the change is approved by the Secretary of the Treasury.
      (B) Approval required for certain changes in assumptions by certain single-employer plans subject to additional funding requirement. -
        (i) In general. - No actuarial assumption (other than the assumptions described in subsection (d)(7)(C) of this section) used to determine the current liability for a plan to which this subparagraph applies may be changed without the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.
        (ii) Plans to which subparagraph applies. - This subparagraph shall apply to a plan only if -
          (I) the plan is a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan) to which subchapter III of this chapter applies;
          (II) the aggregate unfunded vested benefits as of the close of the preceding plan year (as determined under section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iii) of this title) of such plan and all other plans maintained by the contributing sponsors (as defined in section 1301(a)(13) of this title) and members of such sponsors' controlled groups (as defined in section 1301(a)(14) of this title) which are covered by subchapter III of this chapter (disregarding plans with no unfunded vested benefits) exceed $50,000,000; and
          (III) the change in assumptions (determined after taking into account any changes in interest rate and mortality table) results in a decrease in the unfunded current liability of the plan for the current plan year that exceeds $50,000,000, or that exceeds $5,000,000 and that is 5 percent or more of the current liability of the plan before such change.

      (6) If, as of the close of a plan year, a plan would (without regard to this paragraph) have an accumulated funding deficiency
    (determined without regard to the alternative minimum funding standard account permitted under section 1085 of this title) in excess of the full funding limitation -
        (A) the funding standard account shall be credited with the amount of such excess, and
        (B) all amounts described in paragraphs (2), (B), (C), and (D) and (3)(B) of subsection (b) of this section which are required to be amortized shall be considered fully amortized for purposes of such paragraphs.

      (7) Full-funding limitation. -
        (A) In general. - For purposes of paragraph (6), the term "full-funding limitation" means the excess (if any) of -
          (i) the lesser of (I) in the case of plan years beginning before January 1, 2004, the applicable percentage of current liability (including the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year), or (II) the accrued liability (including normal cost) under the plan
        (determined under the entry age normal funding method if such accrued liability cannot be directly calculated under the funding method used for the plan), over
          (ii) the lesser of -
            (I) the fair market value of the plan's assets, or
            (II) the value of such assets determined under paragraph
          (2).

        (B) Current liability. - For purposes of subparagraph (D) and subclause (I) of subparagraph (A)(i), the term "current liability" has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(7) of this section (without regard to subparagraphs (C) and (D) thereof) and using the rate of interest used under subsection
      (b)(5)(B) of this section.
        (C) Special rule for paragraph (6)(b). - For purposes of paragraph (6)(B), subparagraph (A)(i) shall be applied without regard to subclause (I) thereof.
        (D) Regulatory authority. - The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations provide -
          (i) for adjustments to the percentage contained in subparagraph (A)(i) to take into account the respective ages or lengths of service of the participants, and
          (ii) alternative methods based on factors other than current liability for the determination of the amount taken into account under subparagraph (A)(i).

        (E) Minimum amount. -
          (i) In general. - In no event shall the full-funding limitation determined under subparagraph (A) be less than the excess (if any) of -
            (I) 90 percent of the current liability of the plan
          (including the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year), over
            (II) the value of the plan's assets determined under paragraph (2).

          (ii) Current liability; assets. - For purposes of clause (i) -
            (I) the term "current liability" has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(7) of this section (without regard to subparagraph (D) thereof), and
            (II) assets shall not be reduced by any credit balance in the funding standard account.

        (F) Applicable percentage. - For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)(I), the applicable percentage shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

In the case of any plan year The applicable
beginning in calendar year - percentage is -
2002 165
2003 170.

      (8) For purposes of this part, any amendment applying to a plan year which -
        (A) is adopted after the close of such plan year but no later than 2 1/2 months after the close of the plan year (or, in the case of a multiemployer plan, no later than 2 years after the close of such plan year),
        (B) does not reduce the accrued benefit of any participant determined as of the beginning of the first plan year to which the amendment applies, and
        (C) does not reduce the accrued benefit of any participant determined as of the time of adoption except to the extent required by the circumstances, shall, at the election of the plan administrator, be deemed to have been made on the first day of such plan year. No amendment described in this paragraph which reduces the accrued benefits of any participant shall take effect unless the plan administrator files a notice with the Secretary notifying him of such amendment and the Secretary has approved such amendment or, within 90 days after the date on which such notice was filed, failed to disapprove such amendment. No amendment described in this subsection shall be approved by the Secretary unless he determines that such amendment is necessary because of a substantial business hardship (as determined under section 1083(b) of this title) and that waiver under section 1083(a) of this title is unavailable or inadequate.
      (9)(A) For purposes of this part, a determination of experience gains and losses and a valuation of the plan's liability shall be made not less frequently than once every year, except that such determination shall be made more frequently to the extent required in particular cases under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
      (B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), the valuation referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made as of a date within the plan year to which the valuation refers or within one month prior to the beginning of such year.
      (ii) The valuation referred to in subparagraph (A) may be made as of a date within the plan year prior to the year to which the valuation refers if, as of such date, the value of the assets of the plan are not less than 100 percent of the plan's current liability (as defined in paragraph (7)(B)).
      (iii) Information under clause (ii) shall, in accordance with regulations, be actuarially adjusted to reflect significant differences in participants.
      (iv) A change in funding method to use a prior year valuation, as provided in clause (ii), may not be made unless as of the valuation date within the prior plan year, the value of the assets of the plan are not less than 125 percent of the plan's current liability
    (as defined in paragraph (7)(B)).
      (10) For purposes of this section -
        (A) In the case of a defined benefit plan other than a multiemployer plan, any contributions for a plan year made by an employer during the period -
          (i) beginning on the day after the last day of such plan year, and
          (ii) ending on the date which is 8 1/2 months after the close of the plan year, shall be deemed to have been made on such last day.
        (B) In the case of a plan not described in subparagraph (A), any contributions for a plan year made by an employer after the last day of such plan year, but not later than two and one-half months after such day, shall be deemed to have been made on such last day. For purposes of this subparagraph, such two and one-half month period may be extended for not more than six months under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

      (11) Liability for contributions. -
        (A) In general. - Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amount of any contribution required by this section and any required installments under subsection (e) of this section shall be paid by the employer responsible for contributing to or under the plan the amount described in subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section.
        (B) Joint and several liability where employer member of controlled group. -
          (i) In general. - In the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, if the employer referred to in subparagraph (A) is a member of a controlled group, each member of such group shall be jointly and severally liable for payment of such contribution or required installment.
          (ii) Controlled group. - For purposes of clause (i), the term "controlled group" means any group treated as a single employer under subsection (b), (c), (m), or (o) of section 414 of title 26.

      (12) Anticipation of benefit increases effective in the future. -
In determining projected benefits, the funding method of a collectively bargained plan described in section 413(a) of title 26
    (other than a multiemployer plan) shall anticipate benefit increases scheduled to take effect during the term of the collective bargaining agreement applicable to the plan.
    (d) Additional funding requirements for plans which are not multiemployer plans
      (1) In general
In the case of a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan) to which this subsection applies under paragraph (9) for any plan year, the amount charged to the funding standard account for such plan year shall be increased by the sum of -
          (A) the excess (if any) of -
            (i) the deficit reduction contribution determined under paragraph (2) for such plan year, over
            (ii) the sum of the charges for such plan year under subsection (b)(2) of this section, reduced by the sum of the credits for such plan year under subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(3) of this section, plus

          (B) the unpredictable contingent event amount (if any) for such plan year.

Such increase shall not exceed the amount which, after taking into account charges (other than the additional charge under this subsection) and credits under subsection (b) of this section, is necessary to increase the funded current liability percentage
      (taking into account the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year) to 100 percent.
      (2) Deficit reduction contribution
For purposes of paragraph (1), the deficit reduction contribution determined under this paragraph for any plan year is the sum of -
          (A) the unfunded old liability amount,
          (B) the unfunded new liability amount,
          (C) the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year, and
          (D) the aggregate of the unfunded mortality increase amounts.
      (3) Unfunded old liability amount
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) In general
The unfunded old liability amount with respect to any plan for any plan year is the amount necessary to amortize the unfunded old liability under the plan in equal annual installments over a period of 18 plan years (beginning with the 1st plan year beginning after December 31, 1988).
        (B) Unfunded old liability
The term "unfunded old liability" means the unfunded current liability of the plan as of the beginning of the 1st plan year beginning after December 31, 1987 (determined without regard to any plan amendment increasing liabilities adopted after October 16, 1987).
        (C) Special rules for benefit increases under existing collective bargaining agreements
          (i) In general
In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and the employer ratified before October 29, 1987, the unfunded old liability amount with respect to such plan for any plan year shall be increased by the amount necessary to amortize the unfunded existing benefit increase liability in equal annual installments over a period of 18 plan years beginning with -
              (I) the plan year in which the benefit increase with respect to such liability occurs, or
              (II) if the taxpayer elects, the 1st plan year beginning after December 31, 1988.
          (ii) Unfunded existing benefit increase liabilities
For purposes of clause (i), the unfunded existing benefit increase liability means, with respect to any benefit increase under the agreements described in clause (i) which takes effect during or after the 1st plan year beginning after December 31, 1987, the unfunded current liability determined -
              (I) by taking into account only liabilities attributable to such benefit increase, and
              (II) by reducing (but not below zero) the amount determined under paragraph (8)(A)(ii) by the current liability determined without regard to such benefit increase.
          (iii) Extensions, modifications, etc. not taken into account
For purposes of this subparagraph, any extension, amendment, or other modification of an agreement after October 28, 1987, shall not be taken into account.
        (D) Special rule for required changes in actuarial assumptions
          (i) In general
The unfunded old liability amount with respect to any plan for any plan year shall be increased by the amount necessary to amortize the amount of additional unfunded old liability under the plan in equal annual installments over a period of 12 plan years (beginning with the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994).
          (ii) Additional unfunded old liability
For purposes of clause (i), the term "additional unfunded old liability" means the amount (if any) by which -
              (I) the current liability of the plan as of the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994, valued using the assumptions required by paragraph (7)(C) as in effect for plan years beginning after December 31, 1994, exceeds
              (II) the current liability of the plan as of the beginning of such first plan year, valued using the same assumptions used under subclause (I) (other than the assumptions required by paragraph (7)(C)), using the prior interest rate, and using such mortality assumptions as were used to determine current liability for the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1992.
          (iii) Prior interest rate
For purposes of clause (ii), the term "prior interest rate" means the rate of interest that is the same percentage of the weighted average under subsection (b)(5)(B)(ii)(I) of this section for the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994, as the rate of interest used by the plan to determine current liability for the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1992, is of the weighted average under subsection (b)(5)(B)(ii)(I) of this section for such first plan year beginning after December 31, 1992.
        (E) Optional rule for additional unfunded old liability
          (i) In general
If an employer makes an election under clause (ii), the additional unfunded old liability for purposes of subparagraph (D) shall be the amount (if any) by which -
              (I) the unfunded current liability of the plan as of the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994, valued using the assumptions required by paragraph (7)(C) as in effect for plan years beginning after December 31, 1994, exceeds
              (II) the unamortized portion of the unfunded old liability under the plan as of the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994.
          (ii) Election
            (I) An employer may irrevocably elect to apply the provisions of this subparagraph as of the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994.
            (II) If an election is made under this clause, the increase under paragraph (1) for any plan year beginning after December 31, 1994, and before January 1, 2002, to which this subsection applies (without regard to this subclause) shall not be less than the increase that would be required under paragraph (1) if the provisions of this subchapter as in effect for the last plan year beginning before January 1, 1995, had remained in effect.
      (4) Unfunded new liability amount
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) In general
The unfunded new liability amount with respect to any plan for any plan year is the applicable percentage of the unfunded new liability.
        (B) Unfunded new liability
The term "unfunded new liability" means the unfunded current liability of the plan for the plan year determined without regard to -
            (i) the unamortized portion of the unfunded old liability, the unamortized portion of the additional unfunded old liability, the unamortized portion of each unfunded mortality increase, and the unamortized portion of the unfunded existing benefit increase liability, and
            (ii) the liability with respect to any unpredictable contingent event benefits (without regard to whether the event has occurred).
        (C) Applicable percentage
The term "applicable percentage" means, with respect to any plan year, 30 percent, reduced by the product of -
            (i) .40 multiplied by
            (ii) the number of percentage points (if any) by which the funded current liability percentage exceeds 60 percent.
      (5) Unpredictable contingent event amount
        (A) In general
The unpredictable contingent event amount with respect to a plan for any plan year is an amount equal to the greatest of -
            (i) the applicable percentage of the product of -
              (I) 100 percent, reduced (but not below zero) by the funded current liability percentage for the plan year, multiplied by
              (II) the amount of unpredictable contingent event benefits paid during the plan year, including (except as provided by the Secretary of the Treasury) any payment for the purchase of an annuity contract for a participant or beneficiary with respect to such benefits,

            (ii) the amount which would be determined for the plan year if the unpredictable contingent event benefit liabilities were amortized in equal annual installments over 7 plan years
          (beginning with the plan year in which such event occurs), or
            (iii) the additional amount that would be determined under paragraph (4)(A) if the unpredictable contingent event benefit liabilities were included in unfunded new liability notwithstanding paragraph (4)(B)(ii).
        (B) Applicable percentage
In the case of plan years The applicable beginning in: percentage is: 1989 and 1990 5 1991 10 1992 15 1993 20 1994 30 1995 40 1996 50 1997 60 1998 70 1999 80 2000 90 2001 and thereafter 100.
        (C) Paragraph not to apply to existing benefits
This paragraph shall not apply to unpredictable contingent event benefits (and liabilities attributable thereto) for which the event occurred before the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1988.
        (D) Special rule for first year of amortization Unless the employer elects otherwise, the amount determined under subparagraph (A) for the plan year in which the event occurs shall be equal to 150 percent of the amount determined under subparagraph (A)(i). The amount under subparagraph (A)(ii) for subsequent plan years in the amortization period shall be adjusted in the manner provided by the Secretary of the Treasury to reflect the application of this subparagraph.
        (E) Limitation
The present value of the amounts described in subparagraph (A) with respect to any one event shall not exceed the unpredictable contingent event benefit liabilities attributable to that event.
      (6) Special rules for small plans
        (A) Plans with 100 or fewer participants
This subsection shall not apply to any plan for any plan year if on each day during the preceding plan year such plan had no more than 100 participants.
        (B) Plans with more than 100 but not more than 150 participants
In the case of a plan to which subparagraph (A) does not apply and which on each day during the preceding plan year had no more than 150 participants, the amount of the increase under paragraph (1) for such plan year shall be equal to the product of -
            (i) such increase determined without regard to this subparagraph, multiplied by
            (ii) 2 percent for the highest number of participants in excess of 100 on any such day.
        (C) Aggregation of plans
For purposes of this paragraph, all defined benefit plans maintained by the same employer (or any member of such employer's controlled group) shall be treated as 1 plan, but only employees of such employer or member shall be taken into account.
      (7) Current liability
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) In general
The term "current liability" means all liabilities to participants and their beneficiaries under the plan.
        (B) Treatment of unpredictable contingent event benefits
          (i) In general
For purposes of subparagraph (A), any unpredictable contingent event benefit shall not be taken into account until the event on which the benefit is contingent occurs.
          (ii) Unpredictable contingent event benefit
The term "unpredictable contingent event benefit" means any benefit contingent on an event other than -
              (I) age, service, compensation, death, or disability, or
              (II) an event which is reasonably and reliably predictable (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury).
        (C) Interest rate and mortality assumptions used Effective for plan years beginning after December 31, 1994 -
          (i) Interest rate
            (I) In general
The rate of interest used to determine current liability under this subsection shall be the rate of interest used under subsection (b)(5) of this section, except that the highest rate in the permissible range under subparagraph (B)(ii) thereof shall not exceed the specified percentage under subclause (II) of the weighted average referred to in such subparagraph.
            (II) Specified percentage
For purposes of subclause (I), the specified percentage shall be determined as follows:

In the case of
plan years beginning The specified
in calendar year: percentage is:
1995 109
1996 108
1997 107
1998 106
1999 and thereafter 105.
            (III) Special rule for 2002 and 2003
For a plan year beginning in 2002 or 2003, notwithstanding subclause (I), in the case that the rate of interest used under subsection (b)(5) of this section exceeds the highest rate permitted under subclause (I), the rate of interest used to determine current liability under this subsection may exceed the rate of interest otherwise permitted under subclause (I); except that such rate of interest shall not exceed 120 percent of the weighted average referred to in subsection (b)(5)(B)(ii) of this section.
          (ii) Mortality tables
            (I) Commissioners' standard table
In the case of plan years beginning before the first plan year to which the first tables prescribed under subclause
            (II) apply, the mortality table used in determining current liability under this subsection shall be the table prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury which is based on the prevailing commissioners' standard table (described in section 807(d)(5)(A) of title 26) used to determine reserves for group annuity contracts issued on January 1, 1993.
            (II) Secretarial authority
The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulation prescribe for plan years beginning after December 31, 1999, mortality tables to be used in determining current liability under this subsection. Such tables shall be based upon the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience. In prescribing such tables, the Secretary of the Treasury shall take into account results of available independent studies of mortality of individuals covered by pension plans.
            (III) Periodic review
The Secretary of the Treasury shall periodically (at least every 5 years) review any tables in effect under this subsection and shall, to the extent the Secretary determines necessary, by regulation update the tables to reflect the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience.
          (iii) Separate mortality tables for the disabled Notwithstanding clause (ii) -
            (I) In general
In the case of plan years beginning after December 31, 1995, the Secretary of the Treasury shall establish mortality tables which may be used (in lieu of the tables under clause (ii)) to determine current liability under this subsection for individuals who are entitled to benefits under the plan on account of disability. Such Secretary shall establish separate tables for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning before January 1, 1995, and for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning on or after such date.
            (II) Special rule for disabilities occurring after 1994
In the case of disabilities occurring in plan years beginning after December 31, 1994, the tables under subclause (I) shall apply only with respect to individuals described in such subclause who are disabled within the meaning of title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and the regulations thereunder.
            (III) Plan years beginning in 1995
In the case of any plan year beginning in 1995, a plan may use its own mortality assumptions for individuals who are entitled to benefits under the plan on account of disability.
        (D) Certain service disregarded
          (i) In general
In the case of a participant to whom this subparagraph applies, only the applicable percentage of the years of service before such individual became a participant shall be taken into account in computing the current liability of the plan.
          (ii) Applicable percentage
For purposes of this subparagraph, the applicable percentage shall be determined as follows:

If the years of The applicable
participation are: percentage is:
1 20
2 40
3 60
4 80
5 or more 100.
          (iii) Participants to whom subparagraph applies
This subparagraph shall apply to any participant who, at the time of becoming a participant -
              (I) has not accrued any other benefit under any defined benefit plan (whether or not terminated) maintained by the employer or a member of the same controlled group of which the employer is a member,
              (II) who first becomes a participant under the plan in a plan year beginning after December 31, 1987, and
              (III) has years of service greater than the minimum years of service necessary for eligibility to participate in the plan.
          (iv) Election
An employer may elect not to have this subparagraph apply.
Such an election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury.
      (8) Other definitions
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) Unfunded current liability
The term "unfunded current liability" means, with respect to any plan year, the excess (if any) of -
            (i) the current liability under the plan, over
            (ii) value of the plan's assets determined under subsection
          (c)(2) of this section.
        (B) Funded current liability percentage
The term "funded current liability percentage" means, with respect to any plan year, the percentage which -
            (i) the amount determined under subparagraph (A)(ii), is of
            (ii) the current liability under the plan.
        (C) Controlled group
The term "controlled group" means any group treated as a single employer under subsections (b), (c), (m), and (o) of section 414 of title 26.
        (D) Adjustments to prevent omissions and duplications
The Secretary of the Treasury shall provide such adjustments in the unfunded old liability amount, the unfunded new liability amount, the unpredictable contingent event amount, the current payment amount, and any other charges or credits under this section as are necessary to avoid duplication or omission of any factors in the determination of such amounts, charges, or credits.
        (E) Deduction for credit balances
For purposes of this subsection, the amount determined under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be reduced by any credit balance in the funding standard account. The Secretary of the Treasury may provide for such reduction for purposes of any other provision which references this subsection.
      (9) Applicability of subsection
        (A) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (6)(A), this subsection shall apply to a plan for any plan year if its funded current liability percentage for such year is less than 90 percent.
        (B) Exception for certain plans at least 80 percent funded
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a plan for a plan year if -
            (i) the funded current liability percentage for the plan year is at least 80 percent, and
            (ii) such percentage for each of the 2 immediately preceding plan years (or each of the 2d and 3d immediately preceding plan years) is at least 90 percent.
        (C) Funded current liability percentage
For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the term "funded current liability percentage" has the meaning given such term by paragraph (8)(B), except that such percentage shall be determined for any plan year -
            (i) without regard to paragraph (8)(E), and
            (ii) by using the rate of interest which is the highest rate allowable for the plan year under paragraph (7)(C).
        (D) Transition rules
For purposes of this paragraph:
          (i) Funded percentage for years before 1995
The funded current liability percentage for any plan year beginning before January 1, 1995, shall be treated as not less than 90 percent only if for such plan year the plan met one of the following requirements (as in effect for such year):
              (I) The full-funding limitation under subsection (c)(7) of this section for the plan was zero.
              (II) The plan had no additional funding requirement under this subsection (or would have had no such requirement if its funded current liability percentage had been determined under subparagraph (C)).
              (III) The plan's additional funding requirement under this subsection did not exceed the lesser of 0.5 percent of current liability or $5,000,000.
          (ii) Special rule for 1995 and 1996
For purposes of determining whether subparagraph (B) applies to any plan year beginning in 1995 or 1996, a plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subparagraph (B)(ii) if the plan met the requirements of clause (i) of this subparagraph for any two of the plan years beginning in 1992, 1993, and 1994 (whether or not consecutive).
      (10) Unfunded mortality increase amount
        (A) In general
The unfunded mortality increase amount with respect to each unfunded mortality increase is the amount necessary to amortize such increase in equal annual installments over a period of 10 plan years (beginning with the first plan year for which a plan uses any new mortality table issued under paragraph
        (7)(C)(ii)(II) or (III)).
        (B) Unfunded mortality increase
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "unfunded mortality increase" means an amount equal to the excess of -
            (i) the current liability of the plan for the first plan year for which a plan uses any new mortality table issued under paragraph (7)(C)(ii)(II) or (III), over
            (ii) the current liability of the plan for such plan year which would have been determined if the mortality table in effect for the preceding plan year had been used.
      (11) Phase-in of increases in funding required by Retirement Protection Act of 1994
        (A) In general
For any applicable plan year, at the election of the employer, the increase under paragraph (1) shall not exceed the greater of -
            (i) the increase that would be required under paragraph (1) if the provisions of this subchapter as in effect for plan years beginning before January 1, 1995, had remained in effect, or
            (ii) the amount which, after taking into account charges (other than the additional charge under this subsection) and credits under subsection (b) of this section, is necessary to increase the funded current liability percentage (taking into account the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year) for the applicable plan year to a percentage equal to the sum of the initial funded current liability percentage of the plan plus the applicable number of percentage points for such applicable plan year.
        (B) Applicable number of percentage points
          (i) Initial funded current liability percentage of 75 percent or less
Except as provided in clause (ii), for plans with an initial funded current liability percentage of 75 percent or less, the applicable number of percentage points for the applicable plan year is:

In the case The applicable
of applicable number of
plan years percentage
beginning in: points is:
1995 3
1996 6
1997 9
1998 12
1999 15
2000 19
2001 24.
          (ii) Other cases
In the case of a plan to which this clause applies, the applicable number of percentage points for any such applicable plan year is the sum of -
              (I) 2 percentage points;
              (II) the applicable number of percentage points (if any) under this clause for the preceding applicable plan year;
              (III) the product of .10 multiplied by the excess (if any) of (a) 85 percentage points over (b) the sum of the initial funded current liability percentage and the number determined under subclause (II);
              (IV) for applicable plan years beginning in 2000, 1 percentage point; and
              (V) for applicable plan years beginning in 2001, 2 percentage points.
          (iii) Plans to which clause (ii) applies
            (I) In general
Clause (ii) shall apply to a plan for an applicable plan year if the initial funded current liability percentage of such plan is more than 75 percent.
            (II) Plans initially under clause (i)
In the case of a plan which (but for this subclause) has an initial funded current liability percentage of 75 percent or less, clause (ii) (and not clause (i)) shall apply to such plan with respect to applicable plan years beginning after the first applicable plan year for which the sum of the initial funded current liability percentage and the applicable number of percentage points (determined under clause (i)) exceeds 75 percent. For purposes of applying clause (ii) to such a plan, the initial funded current liability percentage of such plan shall be treated as being the sum referred to in the preceding sentence.
        (C) Definitions
For purposes of this paragraph -
            (i) The term "applicable plan year" means a plan year beginning after December 31, 1994, and before January 1, 2002.
            (ii) The term "initial funded current liability percentage" means the funded current liability percentage as of the first day of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1994.
    (e) Quarterly contributions required
      (1) In general
If a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan) which has a funded current liability percentage (as defined in subsection (d)(8) of this section) for the preceding plan year of less than 100 percent fails to pay the full amount of a required installment for the plan year, then the rate of interest charged to the funding standard account under subsection (b)(5) of this section with respect to the amount of the underpayment for the period of the underpayment shall be equal to the greater of -
          (A) 175 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of such plan year), or
          (B) the rate of interest used under the plan in determining costs (including adjustments under subsection (b)(5)(B) of this section).
      (2) Amount of underpayment, period of underpayment
For purposes of paragraph (1) -
        (A) Amount
The amount of the underpayment shall be the excess of -
            (i) the required installment, over
            (ii) the amount (if any) of the installment contributed to or under the plan on or before the due date for the installment.
        (B) Period of underpayment
The period for which any interest is charged under this subsection with respect to any portion of the underpayment shall run from the due date for the installment to the date on which such portion is contributed to or under the plan
        (determined without regard to subsection (c)(10) of this section).
        (C) Order of crediting contributions
For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), contributions shall be credited against unpaid required installments in the order in which such installments are required to be paid.
      (3) Number of required installments; due dates
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) Payable in 4 installments
There shall be 4 required installments for each plan year.
        (B) Time for payment of installments

In the case of the following
required installments: The due date is:
1st April 15
2nd July 15
3rd October 15
4th January 15 of the following year.
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      (4) Amount of required installment
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) In general
The amount of any required installment shall be the applicable percentage of the required annual payment.
        (B) Required annual payment
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "required annual payment" means the lesser of -
            (i) 90 percent of the amount required to be contributed to or under the plan by the employer for the plan year under section 412 of title 26 (without regard to any waiver under subsection (c) thereof), or
            (ii) 100 percent of the amount so required for the preceding plan year.
Clause (ii) shall not apply if the preceding plan year was not a year of 12 months.
        (C) Applicable percentage
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the applicable percentage shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

For plan years The applicable
beginning in: percentage is:
1989 6.25
1990 12.5
1991 18.75
1992 and thereafter 25.
        (D) Special rules for unpredictable contingent event benefits
In the case of a plan to which subsection (d) of this section applies for any calendar year and which has any unpredictable contingent event benefit liabilities -
          (i) Liabilities not taken into account
Such liabilities shall not be taken into account in computing the required annual payment under subparagraph (B).
          (ii) Increase in installments
Each required installment shall be increased by the greatest of -
              (I) the unfunded percentage of the amount of benefits described in subsection (d)(5)(A)(i) of this section paid during the 3-month period preceding the month in which the due date for such installment occurs,
              (II) 25 percent of the amount determined under subsection
            (d)(5)(A)(ii) of this section for the plan year, or
              (III) 25 percent of the amount determined under subsection (d)(5)(A)(iii) of this section for the plan year.
          (iii) Unfunded percentage
For purposes of clause (ii)(I), the term "unfunded percentage" means the percentage determined under subsection (d)(5)(A)(i)(I) of this section for the plan year.
          (iv) Limitation on increase
In no event shall the increases under clause (ii) exceed the amount necessary to increase the funded current liability percentage (within the meaning of subsection (d)(8)(B) of this section) for the plan year to 100 percent.
      (5) Liquidity requirement
        (A) In general
A plan to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as failing to pay the full amount of any required installment to the extent that the value of the liquid assets paid in such installment is less than the liquidity shortfall (whether or not such liquidity shortfall exceeds the amount of such installment required to be paid but for this paragraph).
        (B) Plans to which paragraph applies
This paragraph shall apply to a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan or a plan described in subsection
        (d)(6)(A) of this section) which -
            (i) is required to pay installments under this subsection for a plan year, and
            (ii) has a liquidity shortfall for any quarter during such plan year.
        (C) Period of underpayment
For purposes of paragraph (1), any portion of an installment that is treated as not paid under subparagraph (A) shall continue to be treated as unpaid until the close of the quarter in which the due date for such installment occurs.
        (D) Limitation on increase
If the amount of any required installment is increased by reason of subparagraph (A), in no event shall such increase exceed the amount which, when added to prior installments for the plan year, is necessary to increase the funded current liability percentage (taking into account the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year) to 100 percent.
        (E) Definitions
For purposes of this paragraph -
          (i) Liquidity shortfall
The term "liquidity shortfall" means, with respect to any required installment, an amount equal to the excess (as of the last day of the quarter for which such installment is made) of the base amount with respect to such quarter over the value (as of such last day) of the plan's liquid assets.
          (ii) Base amount
            (I) In general
The term "base amount" means, with respect to any quarter, an amount equal to 3 times the sum of the adjusted disbursements from the plan for the 12 months ending on the last day of such quarter.
            (II) Special rule
If the amount determined under subclause (I) exceeds an amount equal to 2 times the sum of the adjusted disbursements from the plan for the 36 months ending on the last day of the quarter and an enrolled actuary certifies to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that such excess is the result of nonrecurring circumstances, the base amount with respect to such quarter shall be determined without regard to amounts related to those nonrecurring circumstances.
          (iii) Disbursements from the plan
The term "disbursements from the plan" means all disbursements from the trust, including purchases of annuities, payments of single sums and other benefits, and administrative expenses.
          (iv) Adjusted disbursements
The term "adjusted disbursements" means disbursements from the plan reduced by the product of -
              (I) the plan's funded current liability percentage (as defined in subsection (d)(8) of this section) for the plan year, and
              (II) the sum of the purchases of annuities, payments of single sums, and such other disbursements as the Secretary of the Treasury shall provide in regulations.
          (v) Liquid assets
The term "liquid assets" means cash, marketable securities and such other assets as specified by the Secretary of the Treasury in regulations.
          (vi) Quarter
The term "quarter" means, with respect to any required installment, the 3-month period preceding the month in which the due date for such installment occurs.
        (F) Regulations
The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out this paragraph.
      (6) Fiscal years and short years
        (A) Fiscal years
In applying this subsection to a plan year beginning on any date other than January 1, there shall be substituted for the months specified in this subsection, the months which correspond thereto.
        (B) Short plan year
This section shall be applied to plan years of less than 12 months in accordance with regulations prescribed by the
Secretary of the Treasury.
      (7) Special rules for 2002 and 2004
In any case in which the interest rate used to determine current liability is determined under subsection
      (d)(7)(C)(i)(III) of this section -
        (A) 2002
For purposes of applying paragraphs (1) and (4)(B)(ii) for plan years beginning in 2002, the current liability for the preceding plan year shall be redetermined using 120 percent as the specified percentage determined under subsection
        (d)(7)(C)(i)(II) of this section.
        (B) 2004
For purposes of applying paragraphs (1) and (4)(B)(ii) for plan years beginning in 2004, the current liability for the preceding plan year shall be redetermined using 105 percent as the specified percentage determined under subsection
        (d)(7)(C)(i)(II) of this section.
    (f) Imposition of lien where failure to make required contributions
      (1) In general
In the case of a plan covered under section 1321 of this title, if -
          (A) any person fails to make a required installment under subsection (e) of this section or any other payment required under this section before the due date for such installment or other payment, and
          (B) the unpaid balance of such installment or other payment
        (including interest), when added to the aggregate unpaid balance of all preceding such installments or other payments for which payment was not made before the due date (including interest), exceeds $1,000,000, then there shall be a lien in favor of the plan in the amount determined under paragraph (3) upon all property and rights to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such person and any other person who is a member of the same controlled group of which such person is a member.
      (2) Plans to which subsection applies
This subsection shall apply to a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan) for any plan year for which the funded current liability percentage (within the meaning of subsection
      (d)(8)(B) of this section) of such plan is less than 100 percent.
      (3) Amount of lien
For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of the lien shall be equal to the aggregate unpaid balance of required installments and other payments required under this section (including interest) -
          (A) for plan years beginning after 1987, and
          (B) for which payment has not been made before the due date.
      (4) Notice of failure; lien
        (A) Notice of failure
A person committing a failure described in paragraph (1) shall notify the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of such failure within 10 days of the due date for the required installment or other payment.
        (B) Period of lien
The lien imposed by paragraph (1) shall arise on the due date for the required installment or other payment and shall continue until the last day of the first plan year in which the plan ceases to be described in paragraph (1)(B). Such lien shall continue to run without regard to whether such plan continues to be described in paragraph (2) during the period referred to in the preceding sentence.
        (C) Certain rules to apply
Any amount with respect to which a lien is imposed under paragraph (1) shall be treated as taxes due and owing the United States and rules similar to the rules of subsections
        (c), (d), and (e) of section 1368 of this title shall apply with respect to a lien imposed by subsection (a) of this section and the amount with respect to such lien.
      (5) Enforcement
Any lien created under paragraph (1) may be perfected and enforced only by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or at the direction of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, by the contributing sponsor (or any member of the controlled group of the contributing sponsor).
      (6) Definitions
For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) Due date; required installment
The terms "due date" and "required installment" have the meanings given such terms by subsection (e) of this section, except that in the case of a payment other than a required installment, the due date shall be the date such payment is required to be made under this section.
        (B) Controlled group
The term "controlled group" means any group treated as a single employer under subsections (b), (c), (m), and (o) of section 414 of title 26.
    (g) Qualified transfers to health benefit accounts
For purposes of this section, in the case of a qualified transfer
    (as defined in section 420 of title 26) -
        (1) any assets transferred in a plan year on or before the valuation date for such year (and any income allocable thereto) shall, for purposes of subsection (c)(7) of this section, be treated as assets in the plan as of the valuation date for such year, and
        (2) the plan shall be treated as having a net experience loss under subsection (b)(2)(B)(iv) of this section in an amount equal to the amount of such transfer (reduced by any amounts transferred back to the plan under section 420(c)(1)(B) of title 26) and for which amortization charges begin for the first plan year after the plan year in which such transfer occurs, except that such subsection shall be applied to such amount by substituting "10 plan years" for "5 plan years".
    (h) Cross reference
For alternative amortization method for certain multiemployer plans see section 1013(d) of this Act.

    (!1) So in original.

Sec. 1083. Variance from minimum funding standard

    (a) Waiver of requirements in event of business hardship
If an employer, or in the case of a multi-employer plan, 10 percent or more of the number of employers contributing to or under the plan are unable to satisfy the minimum funding standard for a plan year without temporary substantial business hardship
    (substantial business hardship in the case of a multiemployer plan) and if application of the standard would be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate, the Secretary of the Treasury may waive the requirements of section 1082(a) of this title for such year with respect to all or any portion of the minimum funding standard other than the portion thereof determined under section 1082(b)(2)(C) of this title. The Secretary of the Treasury shall not waive the minimum funding standard with respect to a plan for more than 3 of any 15 (5 of any 15 in the case of a multiemployer plan) consecutive plan years. The interest rate used for purposes of computing the amortization charge described in subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section for any plan year shall be -
        (1) in the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, the greater of (A) 150 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of such plan year), or (B) the rate of interest used under the plan in determining costs (including adjustments under section 1082(b)(5)(B) of this title), and
        (2) in the case of a multiemployer plan, the rate determined under section 6621(b) of title 26.
    (b) Matters considered in determining business hardship
For purposes of this part, the factors taken into account in determining temporary substantial business hardship (substantial business hardship in the case of a multiemployer plan) shall include (but shall not be limited to) whether -
        (1) the employer is operating at an economic loss,
        (2) there is substantial unemployment or underemployment in the trade or business and in the industry concerned,
        (3) the sales and profits of the industry concerned are depressed or declining, and
        (4) it is reasonable to expect that the plan will be continued only if the waiver is granted.
    (c) "Waived funding deficiency" defined
For purposes of this part, the term "waived funding deficiency" means the portion of the minimum funding standard (determined without regard to subsection (b)(3)(C) of section 1082 of this title) for a plan year waived by the Secretary of the Treasury and not satisfied by employer contributions.
    (d) Special rules
      (1) Application must be submitted before date 2 1/2 months after close of year
In the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, no waiver may be granted under this section with respect to any plan for any plan year unless an application therefor is submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury not later than the 15th day of the 3rd month beginning after the close of such plan year.
      (2) Special rule if employer is member of controlled group
        (A) In general
In the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, if an employer is a member of a controlled group, the temporary substantial business hardship requirements of subsection (a) of this section shall be treated as met only if such requirements are met -
            (i) with respect to such employer, and
            (ii) with respect to the controlled group of which such employer is a member (determined by treating all members of such group as a single employer).

The Secretary of the Treasury may provide that an analysis of a trade or business or industry of a member need not be conducted if the Secretary of the Treasury determines such analysis is not necessary because the taking into account of such member would not significantly affect the determination under this subsection.
        (B) Controlled group
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "controlled group" means any group treated as a single employer under subsection
        (b), (c), (m), or (o) of section 414 of title 26.
    (e) Notice of filing of application for waiver
      (1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting a waiver under this section, require each applicant to provide evidence satisfactory to such Secretary that the applicant has provided notice of the filing of the application for such waiver to each employee organization representing employees covered by the affected plan, and each affected party (as defined in section 1301(a)(21) of this title) other than the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. Such notice shall include a description of the extent to which the plan is funded for benefits which are guaranteed under subchapter III of this chapter and for benefit liabilities.
      (2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall consider any relevant information provided by a person to whom notice was given under paragraph (1).
    (f) Cross reference
For corresponding duties of the Secretary of the Treasury with regard to implementation of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, see section 412(d) of title 26.

Sec. 1084. Extension of amortization periods

    (a) Determinations by Secretary in granting extension
The period of years required to amortize any unfunded liability
    (described in any clause of subsection (b)(2)(B) of section 1082 of this title) of any plan may be extended by the Secretary for a period of time (not in excess of 10 years) if he determines that such extension would carry out the purposes of this chapter and would provide adequate protection for participants under the plan and their beneficiaries and if he determines that the failure to permit such extension would -
        (1) result in -
          (A) a substantial risk to the voluntary continuation of the plan, or
          (B) a substantial curtailment of pension benefit levels or employee compensation, and

        (2) be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate.

In the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, the interest rate applicable for any plan year under any arrangement entered into by the Secretary in connection with an extension granted under this subsection shall be the greater of (A) 150 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of such plan year), or (B) the rate of interest used under the plan in determining costs. In the case of a multiemployer plan, such rate shall be the rate determined under section 6621(b) of title 26.
    (b) Amendment of plan
      (1) No amendment of the plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of any increase in benefits, any change in the accrual of benefits, or any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan shall be adopted if a waiver under section 1083(a) of this title or an extension of time under subsection (a) of this section is in effect with respect to the plan, or if a plan amendment described in section 1082(c)(8) of this title has been made at any time in the preceding 12 months (24 months in the case of a multiemployer plan). If a plan is amended in violation of the preceding sentence, any such waiver, or extension of time, shall not apply to any plan year ending on or after the date on which such amendment is adopted.
      (2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any plan amendment which -
        (A) the Secretary determines to be reasonable and which provides for only de minimis increases in the liabilities of the plan,
        (B) only repeals an amendment described in section 1082(c)(8) of this title, or
        (C) is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D, of chapter 1, of title 26.
    (c) Notice of filing of application for extension
      (1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting an extension under this section, require each applicant to provide evidence satisfactory to such Secretary that the applicant has provided notice of the filing of the application for such extension to each employee organization representing employees covered by the affected plan.
      (2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall consider any relevant information provided by a person to whom notice was given under paragraph (1).

Sec. 1085. Alternative minimum funding standard

    (a) Maintenance of account
A plan which uses a funding method that requires contributions in all years not less than those required under the entry age normal funding method may maintain an alternative minimum funding standard account for any plan year. Such account shall be credited and charged solely as provided in this section.
    (b) Operation of account
For a plan year the alternative minimum funding standard accounts shall be -
        (1) charged with the sum of -
          (A) the lesser of normal cost under the funding method used under the plan or normal cost determined under the unit credit method,
          (B) the excess, if any, of the present value of accrued benefits under the plan over the fair market value of the assets, and
          (C) an amount equal to the excess, if any, of credits to the alternative minimum funding standard account for all prior plan years over charges to such account for all such years, and

        (2) credited with the amount considered contributed by the employer to or under the plan (within the meaning of section 1082(c)(10) of this title) for the plan year.
    (c) Interest
The alternative minimum funding standard account (and items therein) shall be charged or credited with interest in the manner provided under section 1082(b)(5) of this title with respect to the funding standard account.

Sec. 1085a. Security for waivers of minimum funding standard and extensions of amortization period

    (a) Security may be required
      (1) In general
Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary of the Treasury may require an employer maintaining a defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(15) of this title) to provide security to such plan as a condition for granting or modifying a waiver under section 1083 of this title or an extension under section 1084 of this title.
      (2) Special rules
Any security provided under paragraph (1) may be perfected and enforced only by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or, at the direction of the Corporation, by a contributing sponsor (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(13) of this title) or a member of such sponsor's controlled group (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(14) of this title).
    (b) Consultation with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting or modifying a waiver under section 1083 of this title or an extension under section 1084 of this title with respect to a plan described in subsection (a)(1) of this section -
        (1) provide the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation with -
          (A) notice of the completed application for any waiver, extension, or modification, and
          (B) an opportunity to comment on such application within 30 days after receipt of such notice, and

        (2) consider -
          (A) any comments of the Corporation under paragraph (1)(B), and
          (B) any views of any employee organization representing participants in the plan which are submitted in writing to the
Secretary of the Treasury in connection with such application.

Information provided to the corporation under this subsection shall be considered tax return information and subject to the safeguarding and reporting requirements of section 6103(p) of title 26.
    (c) Exception for certain waivers and extensions
      (1) In general
The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply to any plan with respect to which the sum of -
          (A) the outstanding balance of the accumulated funding deficiencies (within the meaning of section 1082(a)(2) of this title and section 412(a) of title 26) of the plan,
          (B) the outstanding balance of the amount of waived funding deficiencies of the plan waived under section 1083 of this title or section 412(d) of title 26, and
          (C) the outstanding balance of the amount of decreases in the minimum funding standard allowed under section 1084 of this title or section 412(e) of title 26, is less than $1,000,000.
      (2) Accumulated funding deficiencies
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), accumulated funding deficiencies shall include any increase in such amount which would result if all applications for waivers of the minimum funding standard under section 1083 of this title or section 412(d) of title 26 and for extensions of the amortization period under section 1084 of this title or section 412(e) of title 26 which are pending with respect to such plan were denied.

Sec. 1085b. Security required upon adoption of plan amendment resulting in significant underfunding

    (a) In general
If -
        (1) a defined benefit plan (other than a multiemployer plan) to which the requirements of section 1082 of this title apply adopts an amendment an effect of which is to increase current liability under the plan for a plan year, and
        (2) the funded current liability percentage of the plan for the plan year in which the amendment takes effect is less than 60 percent, including the amount of the unfunded current liability under the plan attributable to the plan amendment, the contributing sponsor (or any member of the controlled group of the contributing sponsor) shall provide security to the plan.
    (b) Form of security
The security required under subsection (a) of this section shall consist of -
        (1) a bond issued by a corporate surety company that is an acceptable surety for purposes of section 1112 of this title,
        (2) cash, or United States obligations which mature in 3 years or less, held in escrow by a bank or similar financial institution, or
        (3) such other form of security as is satisfactory to the Secretary of the Treasury and the parties involved.
    (c) Amount of security
The security shall be in an amount equal to the excess of -
        (1) the lesser of -
          (A) the amount of additional plan assets which would be necessary to increase the funded current liability percentage under the plan to 60 percent, including the amount of the unfunded current liability under the plan attributable to the plan amendment, or
          (B) the amount of the increase in current liability under the plan attributable to the plan amendment and any other plan amendments adopted after December 22, 1987, and before such plan amendment, over

        (2) $10,000,000.
    (d) Release of security
The security shall be released (and any amounts thereunder shall be refunded together with any interest accrued thereon) at the end of the first plan year which ends after the provision of the security and for which the funded current liability percentage under the plan is not less than 60 percent. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations for partial releases of the security by reason of increases in the funded current liability percentage.
    (e) Notice
A contributing sponsor which is required to provide security under subsection (a) of this section shall notify the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation within 30 days after the amendment requiring such security takes effect. Such notice shall contain such information as the Corporation may require.
    (f) Definitions
For purposes of this section, the terms "current liability", "funded current liability percentage", and "unfunded current liability" shall have the meanings given such terms by section 1082(d) of this title, except that in computing unfunded current liability there shall not be taken into account any unamortized portion of the unfunded old liability amount as of the close of the plan year.

Sec. 1086. Effective dates

      (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after September 2, 1974.
      (b) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, in the case of a plan in existence on January 1, 1974, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.
      (c)(1) In the case of a plan maintained on January 1, 1974, pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and one or more employers, this part shall apply only with respect to plan years beginning after the earlier of the date specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1061(c)(1) of this title.
      (2) This subsection shall apply with respect to a plan if (and only if) the application of this subsection results in a later effective date for this part than the effective date required by subsection (b) of this section.
      (d) In the case of a plan the administrator of which elects under section 1017(d) of this Act to have the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 relating to participation, vesting, funding, and form of benefit to apply to a plan year and to all subsequent plan years, this part shall apply to plan years beginning on the earlier of the first plan year to which such election applies or the first plan year determined under subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section.
      (e) In the case of a plan maintained by a labor organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(c)(5) of title 26 exclusively for the benefit of its employees and their beneficiaries, this part shall be applied by substituting for the term "December 31, 1975" in subsection (b) of this section, the earlier of -
        (1) the date on which the second convention of such labor organization held after September 2, 1974, ends or
        (2) December 31, 1980, but in no event shall a date earlier than the later of December 31, 1975, or the date determined under subsection (c) of this section be substituted.
      (f) The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after September 2, 1974.

PART 4 - FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY

Sec. 1101. Coverage

    (a) Scope of coverage
This part shall apply to any employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title), other than -
        (1) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees; or
        (2) any agreement described in section 736 of title 26, which provides payments to a retired partner or deceased partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.
    (b) Securities or policies deemed to be included in plan assets
For purposes of this part:
        (1) In the case of a plan which invests in any security issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.], the assets of such plan shall be deemed to include such security but shall not, solely by reason of such investment, be deemed to include any assets of such investment company.
        (2) In the case of a plan to which a guaranteed benefit policy is issued by an insurer, the assets of such plan shall be deemed to include such policy, but shall not, solely by reason of the issuance of such policy, be deemed to include any assets of such insurer. For purposes of this paragraph:
          (A) The term "insurer" means an insurance company, insurance service, or insurance organization, qualified to do business in a State.
          (B) The term "guaranteed benefit policy" means an insurance policy or contract to the extent that such policy or contract provides for benefits the amount of which is guaranteed by the insurer. Such term includes any surplus in a separate account, but excludes any other portion of a separate account.
    (c) Clarification of application of ERISA to insurance company general accounts
      (1)(A) Not later than June 30, 1997, the Secretary shall issue proposed regulations to provide guidance for the purpose of determining, in cases where an insurer issues 1 or more policies to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan (and such policies are supported by assets of such insurer's general account), which assets held by the insurer (other than plan assets held in its separate accounts) constitute assets of the plan for purposes of this part and section 4975 of title 26 and to provide guidance with respect to the application of this subchapter to the general account assets of insurers.
      (B) The proposed regulations under subparagraph (A) shall be subject to public notice and comment until September 30, 1997.
      (C) The Secretary shall issue final regulations providing the guidance described in subparagraph (A) not later than December 31, 1997.
      (D) Such regulations shall only apply with respect to policies which are issued by an insurer on or before December 31, 1998, to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan which is supported by assets of such insurer's general account. With respect to policies issued on or before December 31, 1998, such regulations shall take effect at the end of the 18-month period following the date on which such regulations become final.
      (2) The Secretary shall ensure that the regulations issued under paragraph (1) -
        (A) are administratively feasible, and
        (B) protect the interests and rights of the plan and of its participants and beneficiaries (including meeting the requirements of paragraph (3)).

      (3) The regulations prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require, in connection with any policy issued by an insurer to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan to the extent that the policy is not a guaranteed benefit policy (as defined in subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section) -
        (A) that a plan fiduciary totally independent of the insurer authorize the purchase of such policy (unless such purchase is a transaction exempt under section 1108(b)(5) of this title),
        (B) that the insurer describe (in such form and manner as shall be prescribed in such regulations), in annual reports and in policies issued to the policyholder after the date on which such regulations are issued in final form pursuant to paragraph (1)(C) -
          (i) a description of the method by which any income and expenses of the insurer's general account are allocated to the policy during the term of the policy and upon the termination of the policy, and
          (ii) for each report, the actual return to the plan under the policy and such other financial information as the Secretary may deem appropriate for the period covered by each such annual report,

        (C) that the insurer disclose to the plan fiduciary the extent to which alternative arrangements supported by assets of separate accounts of the insurer (which generally hold plan assets) are available, whether there is a right under the policy to transfer funds to a separate account and the terms governing any such right, and the extent to which support by assets of the insurer's general account and support by assets of separate accounts of the insurer might pose differing risks to the plan, and
        (D) that the insurer manage those assets of the insurer which are assets of such insurer's general account (irrespective of whether any such assets are plan assets) with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing that a prudent man acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims, taking into account all obligations supported by such enterprise.

      (4) Compliance by the insurer with all requirements of the regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be deemed compliance by such insurer with sections 1104, 1106, and 1107 of this title with respect to those assets of the insurer's general account which support a policy described in paragraph (3).
      (5)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), any regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall not take effect before the date on which such regulations become final.
      (B) No person shall be subject to liability under this part or section 4975 of title 26 for conduct which occurred before the date which is 18 months following the date described in subparagraph (A) on the basis of a claim that the assets of an insurer (other than plan assets held in a separate account) constitute assets of the plan, except -
        (i) as otherwise provided by the Secretary in regulations intended to prevent avoidance of the regulations issued under paragraph (1), or
        (ii) as provided in an action brought by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (2) or (5) of section 1132(a) of this title for a breach of fiduciary responsibilities which would also constitute a violation of Federal or State criminal law.

The Secretary shall bring a cause of action described in clause
    (ii) if a participant, beneficiary, or fiduciary demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that a breach described in clause
    (ii) has occurred.
      (6) Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the application of any Federal criminal law.
      (7) For purposes of this subsection, the term "policy" includes a contract.

Sec. 1102. Establishment of plan

    (a) Named fiduciaries
      (1) Every employee benefit plan shall be established and maintained pursuant to a written instrument. Such instrument shall provide for one or more named fiduciaries who jointly or severally shall have authority to control and manage the operation and administration of the plan.
      (2) For purposes of this subchapter, the term "named fiduciary" means a fiduciary who is named in the plan instrument, or who, pursuant to a procedure specified in the plan, is identified as a fiduciary (A) by a person who is an employer or employee organization with respect to the plan or (B) by such an employer and such an employee organization acting jointly.
    (b) Requisite features of plan Every employee benefit plan shall -
        (1) provide a procedure for establishing and carrying out a funding policy and method consistent with the objectives of the plan and the requirements of this subchapter,
        (2) describe any procedure under the plan for the allocation of responsibilities for the operation and administration of the plan
      (including any procedure described in section 1105(c)(1) of this title),
        (3) provide a procedure for amending such plan, and for identifying the persons who have authority to amend the plan, and
        (4) specify the basis on which payments are made to and from the plan.
    (c) Optional features of plan
Any employee benefit plan may provide -
        (1) that any person or group of persons may serve in more than one fiduciary capacity with respect to the plan (including service both as trustee and administrator);
        (2) that a named fiduciary, or a fiduciary designated by a named fiduciary pursuant to a plan procedure described in section 1105(c)(1) of this title, may employ one or more persons to render advice with regard to any responsibility such fiduciary has under the plan; or
        (3) that a person who is a named fiduciary with respect to control or management of the assets of the plan may appoint an investment manager or managers to manage (including the power to acquire and dispose of) any assets of a plan.

Sec. 1103. Establishment of trust

    (a) Benefit plan assets to be held in trust; authority of trustees
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all assets of an employee benefit plan shall be held in trust by one or more trustees. Such trustee or trustees shall be either named in the trust instrument or in the plan instrument described in section 1102(a) of this title or appointed by a person who is a named fiduciary, and upon acceptance of being named or appointed, the trustee or trustees shall have exclusive authority and discretion to manage and control the assets of the plan, except to the extent that -
        (1) the plan expressly provides that the trustee or trustees are subject to the direction of a named fiduciary who is not a trustee, in which case the trustees shall be subject to proper directions of such fiduciary which are made in accordance with the terms of the plan and which are not contrary to this chapter, or
        (2) authority to manage, acquire, or dispose of assets of the plan is delegated to one or more investment managers pursuant to section 1102(c)(3) of this title.
    (b) Exceptions
The requirements of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply -
        (1) to any assets of a plan which consist of insurance contracts or policies issued by an insurance company qualified to do business in a State;
        (2) to any assets of such an insurance company or any assets of a plan which are held by such an insurance company;
        (3) to a plan -
          (A) some or all of the participants of which are employees described in section 401(c)(1) of title 26; or
          (B) which consists of one or more individual retirement accounts described in section 408 of title 26; to the extent that such plan's assets are held in one or more custodial accounts which qualify under section 401(f) or 408(h) of title 26, whichever is applicable.
        (4) to a plan which the Secretary exempts from the requirement of subsection (a) of this section and which is not subject to any of the following provisions of this chapter -
          (A) part 2 of this subtitle,
          (B) part 3 of this subtitle, or
          (C) subchapter III of this chapter; or

        (5) to a contract established and maintained under section 403(b) of title 26 to the extent that the assets of the contract are held in one or more custodial accounts pursuant to section 403(b)(7) of title 26.
        (6) Any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.
    (c) Assets of plan not to inure to benefit of employer; allowable purposes of holding plan assets
      (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), (3), or (4) or subsection (d) of this section, or under sections 1342 and 1344 of this title (relating to termination of insured plans), or under section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on December 17, 1999), the assets of a plan shall never inure to the benefit of any employer and shall be held for the exclusive purposes of providing benefits to participants in the plan and their beneficiaries and defraying reasonable expenses of administering the plan.
      (2)(A) In the case of a contribution, or a payment of withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter -
        (i) if such contribution or payment is made by an employer to a plan (other than a multiemployer plan) by a mistake of fact, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution to the employer within one year after the payment of the contribution, and
        (ii) if such contribution or payment is made by an employer to a multiemployer plan by a mistake of fact or law (other than a mistake relating to whether the plan is described in section 401(a) of title 26 or the trust which is part of such plan is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26), paragraph
      (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution or payment to the employer within 6 months after the plan administrator determines that the contribution was made by such a mistake.

      (B) If a contribution is conditioned on initial qualification of the plan under section 401 or 403(a) of title 26, and if the plan receives an adverse determination with respect to its initial qualification, then paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution to the employer within one year after such determination, but only if the application for the determination is made by the time prescribed by law for filing the employer's return for the taxable year in which such plan was adopted, or such later date as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.
      (C) If a contribution is conditioned upon the deductibility of the contribution under section 404 of title 26, then, to the extent the deduction is disallowed, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return to the employer of such contribution (to the extent disallowed) within one year after the disallowance of the deduction.
      (3) In the case of a withdrawal liability payment which has been determined to be an overpayment, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such payment to the employer within 6 months after the date of such determination.
    (d) Termination of plan
      (1) Upon termination of a pension plan to which section 1321 of this title does not apply at the time of termination and to which this part applies (other than a plan to which no employer contributions have been made) the assets of the plan shall be allocated in accordance with the provisions of section 1344 of this title, except as otherwise provided in regulations of the Secretary.
      (2) The assets of a welfare plan which terminates shall be distributed in accordance with the terms of the plan, except as otherwise provided in regulations of the Secretary.

Sec. 1104. Fiduciary duties

    (a) Prudent man standard of care
      (1) Subject to sections 1103(c) and (d), 1342, and 1344 of this title, a fiduciary shall discharge his duties with respect to a plan solely in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries and -
        (A) for the exclusive purpose of:
          (i) providing benefits to participants and their beneficiaries; and
          (ii) defraying reasonable expenses of administering the plan;

        (B) with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing that a prudent man acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims;
        (C) by diversifying the investments of the plan so as to minimize the risk of large losses, unless under the circumstances it is clearly prudent not to do so; and
        (D) in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the plan insofar as such documents and instruments are consistent with the provisions of this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter.

      (2) In the case of an eligible individual account plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(3) of this title), the diversification requirement of paragraph (1)(C) and the prudence requirement (only to the extent that it requires diversification) of paragraph (1)(B) is not violated by acquisition or holding of qualifying employer real property or qualifying employer securities (as defined in section 1107(d)(4) and (5) of this title).
    (b) Indicia of ownership of assets outside jurisdiction of district courts
Except as authorized by the Secretary by regulations, no fiduciary may maintain the indicia of ownership of any assets of a plan outside the jurisdiction of the district courts of the United States.
    (c) Control over assets by participant or beneficiary
      (1) In the case of a pension plan which provides for individual accounts and permits a participant or beneficiary to exercise control over the assets in his account, if a participant or beneficiary exercises control over the assets in his account (as determined under regulations of the Secretary) -
        (A) such participant or beneficiary shall not be deemed to be a fiduciary by reason of such exercise, and
        (B) no person who is otherwise a fiduciary shall be liable under this part for any loss, or by reason of any breach, which results from such participant's or beneficiary's exercise of control.

      (2) In the case of a simple retirement account established pursuant to a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26, a participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of paragraph (1), be treated as exercising control over the assets in the account upon the earliest of -
        (A) an affirmative election among investment options with respect to the initial investment of any contribution,
        (B) a rollover to any other simple retirement account or individual retirement plan, or
        (C) one year after the simple retirement account is established.
No reports, other than those required under section 1021(g) of this title, shall be required with respect to a simple retirement account established pursuant to such a qualified salary reduction arrangement.
      (3) In the case of a pension plan which makes a transfer to an individual retirement account or annuity of a designated trustee or issuer under section 401(a)(31)(B) of title 26, the participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of paragraph (1), be treated as exercising control over the assets in the account or annuity upon -

        (A) the earlier of -
          (i) a rollover of all or a portion of the amount to another individual retirement account or annuity; or
          (ii) one year after the transfer is made; or

        (B) a transfer that is made in a manner consistent with guidance provided by the Secretary.
    (d) Plan terminations
      (1) If, in connection with the termination of a pension plan which is a single-employer plan, there is an election to establish or maintain a qualified replacement plan, or to increase benefits, as provided under section 4980(d) of title 26, a fiduciary shall discharge the fiduciary's duties under this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter in accordance with the following requirements:
        (A) In the case of a fiduciary of the terminated plan, any requirement -
          (i) under section 4980(d)(2)(B) of title 26 with respect to the transfer of assets from the terminated plan to a qualified replacement plan, and
          (ii) under section 4980(d)(2)(B)(ii) or 4980(d)(3) of title 26 with respect to any increase in benefits under the terminated plan.

        (B) In the case of a fiduciary of a qualified replacement plan, any requirement -
          (i) under section 4980(d)(2)(A) of title 26 with respect to participation in the qualified replacement plan of active participants in the terminated plan,
          (ii) under section 4980(d)(2)(B) of title 26 with respect to the receipt of assets from the terminated plan, and
          (iii) under section 4980(d)(2)(C) of title 26 with respect to the allocation of assets to participants of the qualified replacement plan.

      (2) For purposes of this subsection -
        (A) any term used in this subsection which is also used in section 4980(d) of title 26 shall have the same meaning as when used in such section, and
        (B) any reference in this subsection to title 26 shall be a reference to title 26 as in effect immediately after the enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990.

Sec. 1105. Liability for breach of co-fiduciary

    (a) Circumstances giving rise to liability
In addition to any liability which he may have under any other provisions of this part, a fiduciary with respect to a plan shall be liable for a breach of fiduciary responsibility of another fiduciary with respect to the same plan in the following circumstances:
        (1) if he participates knowingly in, or knowingly undertakes to conceal, an act or omission of such other fiduciary, knowing such act or omission is a breach;
        (2) if, by his failure to comply with section 1104(a)(1) of this title in the administration of his specific responsibilities which give rise to his status as a fiduciary, he has enabled such other fiduciary to commit a breach; or
        (3) if he has knowledge of a breach by such other fiduciary, unless he makes reasonable efforts under the circumstances to remedy the breach.
    (b) Assets held by two or more trustees
      (1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section and in section 1103(a)(1) and (2) of this title, if the assets of a plan are held by two or more trustees -
        (A) each shall use reasonable care to prevent a co-trustee from committing a breach; and
        (B) they shall jointly manage and control the assets of the plan, except that nothing in this subparagraph (B) shall preclude any agreement, authorized by the trust instrument, allocating specific responsibilities, obligations, or duties among trustees, in which event a trustee to whom certain responsibilities, obligations, or duties have not been allocated shall not be liable by reason of this subparagraph (B) either individually or as a trustee for any loss resulting to the plan arising from the acts or omissions on the part of another trustee to whom such responsibilities, obligations, or duties have been allocated.

      (2) Nothing in this subsection shall limit any liability that a fiduciary may have under subsection (a) of this section or any other provision of this part.
      (3)(A) In the case of a plan the assets of which are held in more than one trust, a trustee shall not be liable under paragraph (1) except with respect to an act or omission of a trustee of a trust of which he is a trustee.
      (B) No trustee shall be liable under this subsection for following instructions referred to in section 1103(a)(1) of this title.
    (c) Allocation of fiduciary responsibility; designated persons to carry out fiduciary responsibilities
      (1) The instrument under which a plan is maintained may expressly provide for procedures (A) for allocating fiduciary responsibilities (other than trustee responsibilities) among named fiduciaries, and (B) for named fiduciaries to designate persons other than named fiduciaries to carry out fiduciary responsibilities (other than trustee responsibilities) under the plan.
      (2) If a plan expressly provides for a procedure described in paragraph (1), and pursuant to such procedure any fiduciary responsibility of a named fiduciary is allocated to any person, or a person is designated to carry out any such responsibility, then such named fiduciary shall not be liable for an act or omission of such person in carrying out such responsibility except to the extent that -
        (A) the named fiduciary violated section 1104(a)(1) of this title -
          (i) with respect to such allocation or designation,
          (ii) with respect to the establishment or implementation of the procedure under paragraph (1), or
          (iii) in continuing the allocation or designation; or

        (B) the named fiduciary would otherwise be liable in accordance with subsection (a) of this section.

      (3) For purposes of this subsection, the term "trustee responsibility" means any responsibility provided in the plan's trust instrument (if any) to manage or control the assets of the plan, other than a power under the trust instrument of a named fiduciary to appoint an investment manager in accordance with section 1102(c)(3) of this title.
    (d) Investment managers
      (1) If an investment manager or managers have been appointed under section 1102(c)(3) of this title, then, notwithstanding subsections (a)(2) and (3) and subsection (b) of this section, no trustee shall be liable for the acts or omissions of such investment manager or managers, or be under an obligation to invest or otherwise manage any asset of the plan which is subject to the management of such investment manager.
      (2) Nothing in this subsection shall relieve any trustee of any liability under this part for any act of such trustee.

Sec. 1106. Prohibited transactions

    (a) Transactions between plan and party in interest
Except as provided in section 1108 of this title:
        (1) A fiduciary with respect to a plan shall not cause the plan to engage in a transaction, if he knows or should know that such transaction constitutes a direct or indirect -
          (A) sale or exchange, or leasing, of any property between the plan and a party in interest;
          (B) lending of money or other extension of credit between the plan and a party in interest;
          (C) furnishing of goods, services, or facilities between the plan and a party in interest;
          (D) transfer to, or use by or for the benefit of a party in interest, of any assets of the plan; or
          (E) acquisition, on behalf of the plan, of any employer security or employer real property in violation of section 1107(a) of this title.

        (2) No fiduciary who has authority or discretion to control or manage the assets of a plan shall permit the plan to hold any employer security or employer real property if he knows or should know that holding such security or real property violates section 1107(a) of this title.
    (b) Transactions between plan and fiduciary
A fiduciary with respect to a plan shall not -
        (1) deal with the assets of the plan in his own interest or for his own account,
        (2) in his individual or in any other capacity act in any transaction involving the plan on behalf of a party (or represent a party) whose interests are adverse to the interests of the plan or the interests of its participants or beneficiaries, or
        (3) receive any consideration for his own personal account from any party dealing with such plan in connection with a transaction involving the assets of the plan.
    (c) Transfer of real or personal property to plan by party in interest
A transfer of real or personal property by a party in interest to a plan shall be treated as a sale or exchange if the property is subject to a mortgage or similar lien which the plan assumes or if it is subject to a mortgage or similar lien which a party-in-interest placed on the property within the 10-year period ending on the date of the transfer.

Sec. 1107. Limitation with respect to acquisition and holding of employer securities and employer real property by certain plans

    (a) Percentage limitation
Except as otherwise provided in this section and section 1114 of this title:
        (1) A plan may not acquire or hold -
          (A) any employer security which is not a qualifying employer security, or
          (B) any employer real property which is not qualifying employer real property.

        (2) A plan may not acquire any qualifying employer security or qualifying employer real property, if immediately after such acquisition the aggregate fair market value of employer securities and employer real property held by the plan exceeds 10 percent of the fair market value of the assets of the plan.
        (3)(A) After December 31, 1984, a plan may not hold any qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property (or both) to the extent that the aggregate fair market value of such securities and property determined on December 31, 1984, exceeds 10 percent of the greater of -
          (i) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on December 31, 1984, or
          (ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on January 1, 1975.

        (B) Subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not apply to any plan which on any date after December 31, 1974; and before January 1, 1985, did not hold employer securities or employer real property (or both) the aggregate fair market value of which determined on such date exceeded 10 percent of the greater of
          (i) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on such date, or
          (ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on January 1, 1975.

        (4)(A) After December 31, 1979, a plan may not hold any employer securities or employer real property in excess of the amount specified in regulations under subparagraph (B). This subparagraph shall not apply to a plan after the earliest date after December 31, 1974, on which it complies with such regulations.
        (B) Not later than December 31, 1976, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations which shall have the effect of requiring that a plan divest itself of 50 percent of the holdings of employer securities and employer real property which the plan would be required to divest before January 1, 1985, under paragraph (2) or subsection (c) of this section (whichever is applicable).
    (b) Exception
      (1) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any acquisition or holding of qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property by an eligible individual account plan.
      (2)(A) If this paragraph applies to an eligible individual account plan, the portion of such plan which consists of applicable elective deferrals (and earnings allocable thereto) shall be treated as a separate plan -
        (i) which is not an eligible individual account plan, and
        (ii) to which the requirements of this section apply.

      (B)(i) This paragraph shall apply to any eligible individual account plan if any portion of the plan's applicable elective deferrals (or earnings allocable thereto) are required to be invested in qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property or both -
        (I) pursuant to the terms of the plan, or
        (II) at the direction of a person other than the participant on whose behalf such elective deferrals are made to the plan (or a beneficiary).

      (ii) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan for a plan year if, on the last day of the preceding plan year, the fair market value of the assets of all individual account plans maintained by the employer equals not more than 10 percent of the fair market value of the assets of all pension plans (other than multiemployer plans) maintained by the employer.
      (iii) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan that is an employee stock ownership plan as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26.
      (iv) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan if, pursuant to the terms of the plan, the portion of any employee's applicable elective deferrals which is required to be invested in qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property for any year may not exceed 1 percent of the employee's compensation which is taken into account under the plan in determining the maximum amount of the employee's applicable elective deferrals for such year.
      (C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "applicable elective deferral" means any elective deferral (as defined in section 402(g)(3)(A) of title 26) which is made pursuant to a qualified cash or deferred arrangement as defined in section 401(k) of title 26.
      (3) Cross References. -
          (A) For exemption from diversification requirements for holding of qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property by eligible individual account plans, see section 1104(a)(2) of this title.
          (B) For exemption from prohibited transactions for certain acquisitions of qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property which are not in violation of 10 percent limitation, see section 1108(e) of this title.
          (C) For transitional rules respecting securities or real property subject to binding contracts in effect on June 30, 1974, see section 1114(c) of this title.
    (c) Election
      (1) A plan which makes the election, under paragraph (3) shall be treated as satisfying the requirement of subsection (a)(3) of this section if and only if employer securities held on any date after December 31, 1974 and before January 1, 1985 have a fair market value, determined as of December 31, 1974, not in excess of 10 percent of the lesser of -
        (A) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on such date (disregarding any portion of the fair market value of employer securities which is attributable to appreciation of such securities after December 31, 1974) but not less than the fair market value of plan assets on January 1, 1975, or
        (B) an amount equal to the sum of (i) the total amount of the contributions to the plan received after December 31, 1974, and prior to such date, plus (ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on January 1, 1975.

      (2) For purposes of this subsection, in the case of an employer security held by a plan after January 1, 1975, the ownership of which is derived from ownership of employer securities held by the plan on January 1, 1975, or from the exercise of rights derived from such ownership, the value of such security held after January 1, 1975, shall be based on the value as of January 1, 1975, of the security from which ownership was derived. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.
      (3) An election under this paragraph may not be made after December 31, 1975. Such an election shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and shall be irrevocable. A plan may make an election under this paragraph only if on January 1, 1975, the plan holds no employer real property.
After such election and before January 1, 1985 the plan may not acquire any employer real property.
    (d) Definitions
For purposes of this section -
        (1) The term "employer security" means a security issued by an employer of employees covered by the plan, or by an affiliate of such employer. A contract to which section 1108(b)(5) of this title applies shall not be treated as a security for purposes of this section.
        (2) The term "employer real property" means real property (and related personal property) which is leased to an employer of employees covered by the plan, or to an affiliate of such employer. For purposes of determining the time at which a plan acquires employer real property for purposes of this section, such property shall be deemed to be acquired by the plan on the date on which the plan acquires the property or on the date on which the lease to the employer (or affiliate) is entered into, whichever is later.
        (3)(A) The term "eligible individual account plan" means an individual account plan which is (i) a profit-sharing, stock bonus, thrift, or savings plan; (ii) an employee stock ownership plan; or (iii) a money purchase plan which was in existence on September 2, 1974, and which on such date invested primarily in qualifying employer securities. Such term excludes an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 of title 26.
        (B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a plan shall be treated as an eligible individual account plan with respect to the acquisition or holding of qualifying employer real property or qualifying employer securities only if such plan explicitly provides for acquisition and holding of qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property (as the case may be). In the case of a plan in existence on September 2, 1974, this subparagraph shall not take effect until January 1, 1976.
        (C) The term "eligible individual account plan" does not include any individual account plan the benefits of which are taken into account in determining the benefits payable to a participant under any defined benefit plan.
        (4) The term "qualifying employer real property" means parcels of employer real property -
          (A) if a substantial number of the parcels are dispersed geographically;
          (B) if each parcel of real property and the improvements thereon are suitable (or adaptable without excessive cost) for more than one use;
          (C) even if all of such real property is leased to one lessee (which may be an employer, or an affiliate of an employer); and
          (D) if the acquisition and retention of such property comply with the provisions of this part (other than section 1104(a)(1)(B) of this title to the extent it requires diversification, and sections 1104(a)(1)(C), 1106 of this title, and subsection (a) of this section).

        (5) The term "qualifying employer security" means an employer security which is -
          (A) stock,
          (B) a marketable obligation (as defined in subsection (e) of this section), or
          (C) an interest in a publicly traded partnership (as defined in section 7704(b) of title 26), but only if such partnership is an existing partnership as defined in section 10211(c)(2)(A) of the Revenue Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-203).

After December 17, 1987, in the case of a plan other than an eligible individual account plan, an employer security described in subparagraph (A) or (C) shall be considered a qualifying employer security only if such employer security satisfies the requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section.
        (6) The term "employee stock ownership plan" means an individual account plan -
          (A) which is a stock bonus plan which is qualified, or a stock bonus plan and money purchase plan both of which are qualified, under section 401 of title 26, and which is designed to invest primarily in qualifying employer securities, and
          (B) which meets such other requirements as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe by regulation.

        (7) A corporation is an affiliate of an employer if it is a member of any controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563(a) of title 26, except that "applicable percentage" shall be substituted for "80 percent" wherever the latter percentage appears in such section) of which the employer who maintains the plan is a member. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "applicable percentage" means 50 percent, or such lower percentage as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation. A person other than a corporation shall be treated as an affiliate of an employer to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary. An employer which is a person other than a corporation shall be treated as affiliated with another person to the extent provided by regulations of the Secretary. Regulations under this paragraph shall be prescribed only after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury.
        (8) The Secretary may prescribe regulations specifying the extent to which conversions, splits, the exercise of rights, and similar transactions are not treated as acquisitions.
        (9) For purposes of this section, an arrangement which consists of a defined benefit plan and an individual account plan shall be treated as 1 plan if the benefits of such individual account plan are taken into account in determining the benefits payable under such defined benefit plan.
    (e) Marketable obligations
For purposes of subsection (d)(5) of this section, the term "marketable obligation" means a bond, debenture, note, or certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as "obligation") if -
        (1) such obligation is acquired -
          (A) on the market, either (i) at the price of the obligation prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or (ii) if the obligation is not traded on such a national securities exchange, at a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the obligation as established by current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer;
          (B) from an underwriter, at a price (i) not in excess of the public offering price for the obligation as set forth in a prospectus or offering circular filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and (ii) at which a substantial portion of the same issue is acquired by persons independent of the issuer; or
          (C) directly from the issuer, at a price not less favorable to the plan than the price paid currently for a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer;

        (2) immediately following acquisition of such obligation -
          (A) not more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of obligations issued in such issue and outstanding at the time of acquisition is held by the plan, and
          (B) at least 50 percent of the aggregate amount referred to in subparagraph (A) is held by persons independent of the issuer; and

        (3) immediately following acquisition of the obligation, not more than 25 percent of the assets of the plan is invested in obligations of the employer or an affiliate of the employer.
    (f) Maximum percentage of stock held by plan; time of holding or acquisition; necessity of legally binding contract
      (1) Stock satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if, immediately following the acquisition of such stock -
        (A) no more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of stock of the same class issued and outstanding at the time of acquisition is held by the plan, and
        (B) at least 50 percent of the aggregate amount referred to in subparagraph (A) is held by persons independent of the issuer.

      (2) Until January 1, 1993, a plan shall not be treated as violating subsection (a) of this section solely by holding stock which fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) if such stock -
        (A) has been so held since December 17, 1987, or
        (B) was acquired after December 17, 1987, pursuant to a legally binding contract in effect on December 17, 1987, and has been so held at all times after the acquisition.

Sec. 1108. Exemptions from prohibited transactions

    (a) Grant of exemptions
The Secretary shall establish an exemption procedure for purposes of this subsection. Pursuant to such procedure, he may grant a conditional or unconditional exemption of any fiduciary or transaction, or class of fiduciaries or transactions, from all or part of the restrictions imposed by sections 1106 and 1107(a) of this title. Action under this subsection may be taken only after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury.
An exemption granted under this section shall not relieve a fiduciary from any other applicable provision of this chapter. The Secretary may not grant an exemption under this subsection unless he finds that such exemption is -
        (1) administratively feasible,
        (2) in the interests of the plan and of its participants and beneficiaries, and
        (3) protective of the rights of participants and beneficiaries of such plan.
Before granting an exemption under this subsection from section 1106(a) or 1107(a) of this title, the Secretary shall publish notice in the Federal Register of the pendency of the exemption, shall require that adequate notice be given to interested persons, and shall afford interested persons opportunity to present views.
The Secretary may not grant an exemption under this subsection from section 1106(b) of this title unless he affords an opportunity for a hearing and makes a determination on the record with respect to the findings required by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection.
    (b) Enumeration of transactions exempted from section 1106 prohibitions
The prohibitions provided in section 1106 of this title shall not apply to any of the following transactions:
        (1) Any loans made by the plan to parties in interest who are participants or beneficiaries of the plan if such loans (A) are available to all such participants and beneficiaries on a reasonably equivalent basis, (B) are not made available to highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q) of title 26) in an amount greater than the amount made available to other employees, (C) are made in accordance with specific provisions regarding such loans set forth in the plan, (D) bear a reasonable rate of interest, and (E) are adequately secured. A loan made by a plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of the preceding sentence by reason of a loan repayment suspension described under section 414(u)(4) of title 26.
        (2) Contracting or making reasonable arrangements with a party in interest for office space, or legal, accounting, or other services necessary for the establishment or operation of the plan, if no more than reasonable compensation is paid therefor.
        (3) A loan to an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(6) of this title), if -
          (A) such loan is primarily for the benefit of participants and beneficiaries of the plan, and
          (B) such loan is at an interest rate which is not in excess of a reasonable rate.

If the plan gives collateral to a party in interest for such loan, such collateral may consist only of qualifying employer securities (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title).
        (4) The investment of all or part of a plan's assets in deposits which bear a reasonable interest rate in a bank or similar financial institution supervised by the United States or a State, if such bank or other institution is a fiduciary of such plan and if -
          (A) the plan covers only employees of such bank or other institution and employees of affiliates of such bank or other institution, or
          (B) such investment is expressly authorized by a provision of the plan or by a fiduciary (other than such bank or institution or affiliate thereof) who is expressly empowered by the plan to so instruct the trustee with respect to such investment.

        (5) Any contract for life insurance, health insurance, or annuities with one or more insurers which are qualified to do business in a State, if the plan pays no more than adequate consideration, and if each such insurer or insurers is -
          (A) the employer maintaining the plan, or
          (B) a party in interest which is wholly owned (directly or indirectly) by the employer maintaining the plan, or by any person which is a party in interest with respect to the plan, but only if the total premiums and annuity considerations written by such insurers for life insurance, health insurance, or annuities for all plans (and their employers) with respect to which such insurers are parties in interest (not including premiums or annuity considerations written by the employer maintaining the plan) do not exceed 5 percent of the total premiums and annuity considerations written for all lines of insurance in that year by such insurers (not including premiums or annuity considerations written by the employer maintaining the plan).

        (6) The providing of any ancillary service by a bank or similar financial institution supervised by the United States or a State, if such bank or other institution is a fiduciary of such plan, and if -
          (A) such bank or similar financial institution has adopted adequate internal safeguards which assure that the providing of such ancillary service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State supervisory authority, and
          (B) the extent to which such ancillary service is provided is subject to specific guidelines issued by such bank or similar financial institution (as determined by the Secretary after consultation with Federal and State supervisory authority), and adherence to such guidelines would reasonably preclude such bank or similar financial institution from providing such ancillary service (i) in an excessive or unreasonable manner, and (ii) in a manner that would be inconsistent with the best interests of participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.

Such ancillary services shall not be provided at more than reasonable compensation.
        (7) The exercise of a privilege to convert securities, to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary, but only if the plan receives no less than adequate consideration pursuant to such conversion.
        (8) Any transaction between a plan and (i) a common or collective trust fund or pooled investment fund maintained by a party in interest which is a bank or trust company supervised by a State or Federal agency or (ii) a pooled investment fund of an insurance company qualified to do business in a State, if -
          (A) the transaction is a sale or purchase of an interest in the fund,
          (B) the bank, trust company, or insurance company receives not more than reasonable compensation, and
          (C) such transaction is expressly permitted by the instrument under which the plan is maintained, or by a fiduciary (other than the bank, trust company, or insurance company, or an affiliate thereof) who has authority to manage and control the assets of the plan.

        (9) The making by a fiduciary of a distribution of the assets of the plan in accordance with the terms of the plan if such assets are distributed in the same manner as provided under section 1344 of this title (relating to allocation of assets).
        (10) Any transaction required or permitted under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter.
        (11) A merger of multiemployer plans, or the transfer of assets or liabilities between multiemployer plans, determined by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to meet the requirements of section 1411 of this title.
        (12) The sale by a plan to a party in interest on or after December 18, 1987, of any stock, if -
          (A) the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection
        (e) of this section are met with respect to such stock,
          (B) on the later of the date on which the stock was acquired by the plan, or January 1, 1975, such stock constituted a qualifying employer security (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title as then in effect), and
          (C) such stock does not constitute a qualifying employer security (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title as in effect at the time of the sale).

        (13) Any transfer made before January 1, 2006, of excess pension assets from a defined benefit plan to a retiree health account in a qualified transfer permitted under section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on December 17, 1999).
    (c) Fiduciary benefits and compensation not prohibited by section 1106 Nothing in section 1106 of this title shall be construed to prohibit any fiduciary from -
        (1) receiving any benefit to which he may be entitled as a participant or beneficiary in the plan, so long as the benefit is computed and paid on a basis which is consistent with the terms of the plan as applied to all other participants and beneficiaries;
        (2) receiving any reasonable compensation for services rendered, or for the reimbursement of expenses properly and actually incurred, in the performance of his duties with the plan; except that no person so serving who already receives full time pay from an employer or an association of employers, whose employees are participants in the plan, or from an employee organization whose members are participants in such plan shall receive compensation from such plan, except for reimbursement of expenses properly and actually incurred; or
        (3) serving as a fiduciary in addition to being an officer, employee, agent, or other representative of a party in interest.
    (d) Owner-employees; family members; shareholder employees
      (1) Section 1107(b) of this title and subsections (b), (c), and
    (e) of this section shall not apply to a transaction in which a plan directly or indirectly -
        (A) lends any part of the corpus or income of the plan to,
        (B) pays any compensation for personal services rendered to the plan to, or
        (C) acquires for the plan any property from, or sells any property to, any person who is with respect to the plan an owner-employee (as defined in section 401(c)(3) of title 26), a member of the family
    (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of such title) of any such owner-employee, or any corporation in which any such owner-employee owns, directly or indirectly, 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the corporation.
      (2)(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), the following shall be treated as owner-employees:
        (i) A shareholder-employee.
        (ii) A participant or beneficiary of an individual retirement plan (as defined in section 7701(a)(37) of title 26).
        (iii) An employer or association of employees which establishes such an individual retirement plan under section 408(c) of such title.

      (B) Paragraph (1)(C) shall not apply to a transaction which consists of a sale of employer securities to an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(6) of this title) by a shareholder-employee, a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of such title) of any such owner-employee, or a corporation in which such a shareholder-employee owns stock representing a 50 percent or greater interest described in paragraph (1).
      (C) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the term "owner-employee" shall only include a person described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A).
      (3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the term "shareholder-employee" means an employee or officer of an S corporation (as defined in section 1361(a)(1) of such title) who owns (or is considered as owning within the meaning of section 318(a)(1) of such title) more than 5 percent of the outstanding stock of the corporation on any day during the taxable year of such corporation.
    (e) Acquisition or sale by plan of qualifying employer securities; acquisition, sale, or lease by plan of qualifying employer real property
Sections 1106 and 1107 of this title shall not apply to the acquisition or sale by a plan of qualifying employer securities (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title) or acquisition, sale or lease by a plan of qualifying employer real property (as defined in section 1107(d)(4) of this title) -
        (1) if such acquisition, sale, or lease is for adequate consideration (or in the case of a marketable obligation, at a price not less favorable to the plan than the price determined under section 1107(e)(1) of this title),
        (2) if no commission is charged with respect thereto, and
        (3) if -
          (A) the plan is an eligible individual account plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(3) of this title), or
          (B) in the case of an acquisition or lease of qualifying employer real property by a plan which is not an eligible individual account plan, or of an acquisition of qualifying employer securities by such a plan, the lease or acquisition is not prohibited by section 1107(a) of this title.
    (f) Applicability of statutory prohibitions to mergers or transfers
Section 1106(b)(2) of this title shall not apply to any merger or transfer described in subsection (b)(11) of this section.

Sec. 1109. Liability for breach of fiduciary duty

      (a) Any person who is a fiduciary with respect to a plan who breaches any of the responsibilities, obligations, or duties imposed upon fiduciaries by this subchapter shall be personally liable to make good to such plan any losses to the plan resulting from each such breach, and to restore to such plan any profits of such fiduciary which have been made through use of assets of the plan by the fiduciary, and shall be subject to such other equitable or remedial relief as the court may deem appropriate, including removal of such fiduciary. A fiduciary may also be removed for a violation of section 1111 of this title.
      (b) No fiduciary shall be liable with respect to a breach of fiduciary duty under this subchapter if such breach was committed before he became a fiduciary or after he ceased to be a fiduciary.

Sec. 1110. Exculpatory provisions; insurance

      (a) Except as provided in sections 1105(b)(1) and 1105(d) of this title, any provision in an agreement or instrument which purports to relieve a fiduciary from responsibility or liability for any responsibility, obligation, or duty under this part shall be void as against public policy.
      (b) Nothing in this subpart (!1) shall preclude -

        (1) a plan from purchasing insurance for its fiduciaries or for itself to cover liability or losses occurring by reason of the act or omission of a fiduciary, if such insurance permits recourse by the insurer against the fiduciary in the case of a breach of a fiduciary obligation by such fiduciary;
        (2) a fiduciary from purchasing insurance to cover liability under this part from and for his own account; or
        (3) an employer or an employee organization from purchasing insurance to cover potential liability of one or more persons who serve in a fiduciary capacity with regard to an employee benefit plan.

    (!1) So in original. This part does not contain subparts.

Sec. 1111. Persons prohibited from holding certain positions

    (a) Conviction or imprisonment No person who has been convicted of, or has been imprisoned as a result of his conviction of, robbery, bribery, extortion, embezzlement, fraud, grand larceny, burglary, arson, a felony violation of Federal or State law involving substances defined in section 802(6) of title 21, murder, rape, kidnaping, perjury, assault with intent to kill, any crime described in section 80a-9(a)(1) of title 15, a violation of any provision of this chapter, a violation of section 186 of this title, a violation of chapter 63 of title 18, a violation of section 874, 1027, 1503, 1505, 1506, 1510, 1951, or 1954 of title 18, a violation of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. 401), any felony involving abuse or misuse of such person's position or employment in a labor organization or employee benefit plan to seek or obtain an illegal gain at the expense of the members of the labor organization or the beneficiaries of the employee benefit plan, or conspiracy to commit any such crimes or attempt to commit any such crimes, or a crime in which any of the foregoing crimes is an element, shall serve or be permitted to serve -
        (1) as an administrator, fiduciary, officer, trustee, custodian, counsel, agent, employee, or representative in any capacity of any employee benefit plan,
        (2) as a consultant or adviser to an employee benefit plan, including but not limited to any entity whose activities are in whole or substantial part devoted to providing goods or services to any employee benefit plan, or
        (3) in any capacity that involves decisionmaking authority or custody or control of the moneys, funds, assets, or property of any employee benefit plan, during or for the period of thirteen years after such conviction or after the end of such imprisonment, whichever is later, unless the sentencing court on the motion of the person convicted sets a lesser period of at least three years after such conviction or after the end of such imprisonment, whichever is later, or unless prior to the end of such period, in the case of a person so convicted or imprisoned (A) his citizenship rights, having been revoked as a result of such conviction, have been fully restored, or (B) if the offense is a Federal offense, the sentencing judge or, if the offense is a State or local offense, the United States district court for the district in which the offense was committed, pursuant to sentencing guidelines and policy statements under section 994(a) of title 28, determines that such person's service in any capacity referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) would not be contrary to the purposes of this subchapter. Prior to making any such determination the court shall hold a hearing and shall give notice to (!1) such proceeding by certified mail to the Secretary of Labor and to State, county, and Federal prosecuting officials in the jurisdiction or jurisdictions in which such person was convicted. The court's determination in any such proceeding shall be final. No person shall knowingly hire, retain, employ, or otherwise place any other person to serve in any capacity in violation of this subsection. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, no corporation or partnership will be precluded from acting as an administrator, fiduciary, officer, trustee, custodian, counsel, agent, or employee of any employee benefit plan or as a consultant to any employee benefit plan without a notice, hearing, and determination by such court that such service would be inconsistent with the intention of this section.

    (b) Penalty
Any person who intentionally violates this section shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both.
    (c) Definitions
For the purpose of this section -
        (1) A person shall be deemed to have been "convicted" and under the disability of "conviction" from the date of the judgment of the trial court, regardless of whether that judgment remains under appeal.
        (2) The term "consultant" means any person who, for compensation, advises, or represents an employee benefit plan or who provides other assistance to such plan, concerning the establishment or operation of such plan.
        (3) A period of parole or supervised release shall not be considered as part of a period of imprisonment.
    (d) Salary of person barred from employee benefit plan office during appeal of conviction Whenever any person -
        (1) by operation of this section, has been barred from office or other position in an employee benefit plan as a result of a conviction, and
        (2) has filed an appeal of that conviction, any salary which would be otherwise due such person by virtue of such office or position, shall be placed in escrow by the individual or organization responsible for payment of such salary. Payment of such salary into escrow shall continue for the duration of the appeal or for the period of time during which such salary would be otherwise due, whichever period is shorter. Upon the final reversal of such person's conviction on appeal, the amounts in escrow shall be paid to such person. Upon the final sustaining of that person's conviction on appeal, the amounts in escrow shall be returned to the individual or organization responsible for payments of those amounts. Upon final reversal of such person's conviction, such person shall no longer be barred by this statute (!2) from assuming any position from which such person was previously barred.

    (!1) So in original. Probably should be "of".

    (!2) So in original. Probably should be "section".

Sec. 1112. Bonding

    (a) Requisite bonding of plan officials Every fiduciary of an employee benefit plan and every person who handles funds or other property of such a plan (hereafter in this section referred to as "plan official") shall be bonded as provided in this section; except that -
      (1) where such plan is one under which the only assets from which benefits are paid are the general assets of a union or of an employer, the administrator, officers, and employees of such plan shall be exempt from the bonding requirements of this section, and
      (2) no bond shall be required of a fiduciary (or of any director, officer, or employee of such fiduciary) if such fiduciary -
        (A) is a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or of any State;
        (B) is authorized under such laws to exercise trust powers or to conduct an insurance business;
        (C) is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authority; and
        (D) has at all times a combined capital and surplus in excess of such a minimum amount as may be established by regulations issued by the Secretary, which amount shall be at least $1,000,000. Paragraph (2) shall apply to a bank or other financial institution which is authorized to exercise trust powers and the deposits of which are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, only if such bank or institution meets bonding or similar requirements under State law which the Secretary determines are at least equivalent to those imposed on banks by Federal law.

The amount of such bond shall be fixed at the beginning of each fiscal year of the plan. Such amount shall be not less than 10 per centum of the amount of funds handled. In no case shall such bond be less than $1,000 nor more than $500,000, except that the
Secretary, after due notice and opportunity for hearing to all interested parties, and after consideration of the record, may prescribe an amount in excess of $500,000, subject to the 10 per centum limitation of the preceding sentence. For purposes of fixing the amount of such bond, the amount of funds handled shall be determined by the funds handled by the person, group, or class to be covered by such bond and by their predecessor or predecessors, if any, during the preceding reporting year, or if the plan has no preceding reporting year, the amount of funds to be handled during the current reporting year by such person, group, or class, estimated as provided in regulations of the Secretary. Such bond shall provide protection to the plan against loss by reason of acts of fraud or dishonesty on the part of the plan official, directly or through connivance with others. Any bond shall have as surety thereon a corporate surety company which is an acceptable surety on Federal bonds under authority granted by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to sections 9304-9308 of title 31. Any bond shall be in a form or of a type approved by the Secretary, including individual bonds or schedule or blanket forms of bonds which cover a group or class.
    (b) Unlawful acts
It shall be unlawful for any plan official to whom subsection (a) of this section applies, to receive, handle, disburse, or otherwise exercise custody or control of any of the funds or other property of any employee benefit plan, without being bonded as required by subsection (a) of this section and it shall be unlawful for any plan official of such plan, or any other person having authority to direct the performance of such functions, to permit such functions, or any of them, to be performed by any plan official, with respect to whom the requirements of subsection (a) of this section have not been met.
    (c) Conflict of interest prohibited in procuring bonds
It shall be unlawful for any person to procure any bond required by subsection (a) of this section from any surety or other company or through any agent or broker in whose business operations such plan or any party in interest in such plan has any control or significant financial interest, direct or indirect.
    (d) Exclusiveness of statutory basis for bonding requirement for persons handling funds or other property of employee benefit plans Nothing in any other provision of law shall require any person, required to be bonded as provided in subsection (a) of this section because he handles funds or other property of an employee benefit plan, to be bonded insofar as the handling by such person of the funds or other property of such plan is concerned.
    (e) Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section including exempting a plan from the requirements of this section where he finds that (1) other bonding arrangements or (2) the overall financial condition of the plan would be adequate to protect the interests of the beneficiaries and participants. When, in the opinion of the Secretary, the administrator of a plan offers adequate evidence of the financial responsibility of the plan, or that other bonding arrangements would provide adequate protection of the beneficiaries and participants, he may exempt such plan from the requirements of this section.

Sec. 1113. Limitation of actions

No action may be commenced under this subchapter with respect to a fiduciary's breach of any responsibility, duty, or obligation under this part, or with respect to a violation of this part, after the earlier of -
        (1) six years after (A) the date of the last action which constituted a part of the breach or violation, or (B) in the case of an omission the latest date on which the fiduciary could have cured the breach or violation, or
        (2) three years after the earliest date on which the plaintiff had actual knowledge of the breach or violation; except that in the case of fraud or concealment, such action may be commenced not later than six years after the date of discovery of such breach or violation.

Sec. 1114. Effective date

      (a) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section, this part shall take effect on January 1, 1975.
      (b)(1) The provisions of this part authorizing the Secretary to promulgate regulations shall take effect on September 2, 1974.
      (2) Upon application of a plan, the Secretary may postpone until not later than January 1, 1976, the applicability of any provision of sections 1102, 1103 (other than 1103(c)), 1105 (other than 1105(a) and (d)), and 1110(a) of this title, as it applies to any plan in existence on September 2, 1974, if he determines such postponement is (A) necessary to amend the instrument establishing the plan under which the plan is maintained and (B) not adverse to the interest of participants and beneficiaries.
      (3) This part shall take effect on September 2, 1974, with respect to a plan which terminates after June 30, 1974, and before January 1, 1975, and to which at the time of termination section 1321 of this title applies.
      (c) Sections 1106 and 1107(a) of this title (relating to prohibited transactions) shall not apply -
        (1) until June 30, 1984, to a loan of money or other extension of credit between a plan and a party in interest under a binding contract in effect on July 1, 1974 (or pursuant to renewals of such a contract), if such loan or other extension of credit remains at least as favorable to the plan as an arm's-length transaction with an unrelated party would be, and if the execution of the contract, the making of the loan, or the extension of credit was not, at the time of such execution, making, or extension, a prohibited transaction (within the meaning of section 503(b) of title 26 or the corresponding provisions of prior law);
        (2) until June 30, 1984, to a lease or joint use of property involving the plan and a party in interest pursuant to a binding contract in effect on July 1, 1974 (or pursuant to renewals of such a contract), if such lease or joint use remains at least as favorable to the plan as an arm's-length transaction with an unrelated party would be and if the execution of the contract was not, at the time of such execution, a prohibited transaction (within the meaning of section 503(b) of title 26 or the corresponding provisions of prior law);
        (3) until June 30, 1984, to the sale, exchange or other disposition of property described in paragraph (2) between a plan and a party in interest if -
          (A) in the case of a sale, exchange, or other disposition of the property by the plan to the party in interest, the plan receives an amount which is not less than the fair market value of the property at the time of such disposition; and
          (B) in the case of the acquisition of the property by the plan, the plan pays an amount which is not in excess of the fair market value of the property at the time of such acquisition;

        (4) until June 30, 1977, to the provision of services, to which paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) do not apply between a plan and a party in interest -
          (A) under a binding contract in effect on July 1, 1974 (or pursuant to renewals of such contract), or
          (B) if the party in interest ordinarily and customarily furnished such services on June 30, 1974, if such provision of services remains at least as favorable to the plan as an arm's-length transaction with an unrelated party would be and if such provision of services was not, at the time of such provision, a prohibited transaction (within the meaning of section 503(b) of title 26) or the corresponding provisions of prior law; or

        (5) the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property which is owned by a plan on June 30, 1974, and all times thereafter, to a party in interest, if such plan is required to dispose of such property in order to comply with the provisions of section 1107(a) of this title (relating to the prohibition against holding excess employer securities and employer real property), and if the plan receives not less than adequate consideration.

      (d) Any election, or failure to elect, by a disqualified person under section 2003(c)(1)(B) of this Act shall be treated for purposes of this part (but not for purposes of section 1144 of this title) as an act or omission occurring before the effective date of this part.
      (e) The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after
September 2, 1974.

PART 5 - ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

Sec. 1131. Criminal penalties

Any person who willfully violates any provision of part 1 of this subtitle, or any regulation or order issued under any such provision, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both; except that in the case of such violation by a person not an individual, the fine imposed upon such person shall be a fine not exceeding $500,000.

Sec. 1132. Civil enforcement

    (a) Persons empowered to bring a civil action
A civil action may be brought -
        (1) by a participant or beneficiary -
          (A) for the relief provided for in subsection (c) of this section, or
          (B) to recover benefits due to him under the terms of his plan, to enforce his rights under the terms of the plan, or to clarify his rights to future benefits under the terms of the plan;

        (2) by the Secretary, or by a participant, beneficiary or fiduciary for appropriate relief under section 1109 of this title;
        (3) by a participant, beneficiary, or fiduciary (A) to enjoin any act or practice which violates any provision of this subchapter or the terms of the plan, or (B) to obtain other appropriate equitable relief (i) to redress such violations or
      (ii) to enforce any provisions of this subchapter or the terms of the plan;
        (4) by the Secretary, or by a participant, or beneficiary for appropriate relief in the case of a violation of 1025(c) of this title;
        (5) except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, by the Secretary (A) to enjoin any act or practice which violates any provision of this subchapter, or (B) to obtain other appropriate equitable relief (i) to redress such violation or
      (ii) to enforce any provision of this subchapter;
        (6) by the Secretary to collect any civil penalty under paragraph (2), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of subsection (c) of this section or under subsection (i) or (l) of this section;
        (7) by a State to enforce compliance with a qualified medical child support order (as defined in section 1169(a)(2)(A) of this title);
        (8) by the Secretary, or by an employer or other person referred to in section 1021(f)(1) of this title, (A) to enjoin any act or practice which violates subsection (f) of section 1021 of this title, or (B) to obtain appropriate equitable relief (i) to redress such violation or (ii) to enforce such subsection; or
        (9) in the event that the purchase of an insurance contract or insurance annuity in connection with termination of an individual's status as a participant covered under a pension plan with respect to all or any portion of the participant's pension benefit under such plan constitutes a violation of part 4 of this title (!1) or the terms of the plan, by the Secretary, by any individual who was a participant or beneficiary at the time of the alleged violation, or by a fiduciary, to obtain appropriate relief, including the posting of security if necessary, to assure receipt by the participant or beneficiary of the amounts provided or to be provided by such insurance contract or annuity, plus reasonable prejudgment interest on such amounts.

    (b) Plans qualified under Internal Revenue Code; maintenance of actions involving delinquent contributions
      (1) In the case of a plan which is qualified under section 401(a), 403(a), or 405(a) (!2) of title 26 (or with respect to which an application to so qualify has been filed and has not been finally determined) the Secretary may exercise his authority under subsection (a)(5) of this section with respect to a violation of, or the enforcement of, parts 2 and 3 of this subtitle (relating to participation, vesting, and funding), only if -

        (A) requested by the Secretary of the Treasury, or
        (B) one or more participants, beneficiaries, or fiduciaries, of such plan request in writing (in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation) that he exercise such authority on their behalf. In the case of such a request under this paragraph he may exercise such authority only if he determines that such violation affects, or such enforcement is necessary to protect, claims of participants or beneficiaries to benefits under the plan.

      (2) The Secretary shall not initiate an action to enforce section 1145 of this title.
      (3) The Secretary is not authorized to enforce under this part any requirement of part 7 against a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title). Nothing in this paragraph shall affect the authority of the Secretary to issue regulations to carry out such part.
    (c) Administrator's refusal to supply requested information; penalty for failure to provide annual report in complete form
      (1) Any administrator (A) who fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) or (4) of section 1166 (!2) of this title or section 1021(e)(1) of this title with respect to a participant or beneficiary, or (B) who fails or refuses to comply with a request for any information which such administrator is required by this subchapter to furnish to a participant or beneficiary (unless such failure or refusal results from matters reasonably beyond the control of the administrator) by mailing the material requested to the last known address of the requesting participant or beneficiary within 30 days after such request may in the court's discretion be personally liable to such participant or beneficiary in the amount of up to $100 a day from the date of such failure or refusal, and the court may in its discretion order such other relief as it deems proper. For purposes of this paragraph, each violation described in subparagraph (A) with respect to any single participant, and each violation described in subparagraph (B) with respect to any single participant or beneficiary, shall be treated as a separate violation.
      (2) The Secretary may assess a civil penalty against any plan administrator of up to $1,000 a day from the date of such plan administrator's failure or refusal to file the annual report required to be filed with the Secretary under section 1021(b)(4)
    (!2) of this title. For purposes of this paragraph, an annual report that has been rejected under section 1024(a)(4) of this title for failure to provide material information shall not be treated as having been filed with the Secretary.
      (3) Any employer maintaining a plan who fails to meet the notice requirement of section 1021(d) of this title with respect to any participant or beneficiary or who fails to meet the requirements of section 1021(e)(2) of this title with respect to any person may in the court's discretion be liable to such participant or beneficiary or to such person in the amount of up to $100 a day from the date of such failure, and the court may in its discretion order such other relief as it deems proper.
      (4) The Secretary may assess a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation by any person of section 1021(f)(1) of this title.
      (5) The Secretary may assess a civil penalty against any person of up to $1,000 a day from the date of the person's failure or refusal to file the information required to be filed by such person with the Secretary under regulations prescribed pursuant to section 1021(g) of this title.
      (6) If, within 30 days of a request by the Secretary to a plan administrator for documents under section 1024(a)(6) of this title, the plan administrator fails to furnish the material requested to the Secretary, the Secretary may assess a civil penalty against the plan administrator of up to $100 a day from the date of such failure (but in no event in excess of $1,000 per request). No penalty shall be imposed under this paragraph for any failure resulting from matters reasonably beyond the control of the plan administrator.
      (7) The Secretary may assess a civil penalty against a plan administrator of up to $100 a day from the date of the plan administrator's failure or refusal to provide notice to participants and beneficiaries in accordance with section 1021(i) of this title. For purposes of this paragraph, each violation with respect to any single participant or beneficiary shall be treated as a separate violation.
      (8) The Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall maintain such ongoing consultation as may be necessary and appropriate to coordinate enforcement under this subsection with enforcement under section 1320b-14(c)(8) (!2) of title 42.
    (d) Status of employee benefit plan as entity
      (1) An employee benefit plan may sue or be sued under this subchapter as an entity. Service of summons, subpena, or other legal process of a court upon a trustee or an administrator of an employee benefit plan in his capacity as such shall constitute service upon the employee benefit plan. In a case where a plan has not designated in the summary plan description of the plan an individual as agent for the service of legal process, service upon the Secretary shall constitute such service. The Secretary, not later than 15 days after receipt of service under the preceding sentence, shall notify the administrator or any trustee of the plan of receipt of such service.
      (2) Any money judgment under this subchapter against an employee benefit plan shall be enforceable only against the plan as an entity and shall not be enforceable against any other person unless liability against such person is established in his individual capacity under this subchapter.
    (e) Jurisdiction
      (1) Except for actions under subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section, the district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction of civil actions under this subchapter brought by the Secretary or by a participant, beneficiary, fiduciary, or any person referred to in section 1021(f)(1) of this title. State courts of competent jurisdiction and district courts of the United States shall have concurrent jurisdiction of actions under paragraphs (1)(B) and (7) of subsection (a) of this section.
      (2) Where an action under this subchapter is brought in a district court of the United States, it may be brought in the district where the plan is administered, where the breach took place, or where a defendant resides or may be found, and process may be served in any other district where a defendant resides or may be found.
    (f) Amount in controversy; citizenship of parties
The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction, without respect to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to grant the relief provided for in subsection (a) of this section in any action.
    (g) Attorney's fees and costs; awards in actions involving delinquent contributions
      (1) In any action under this subchapter (other than an action described in paragraph (2)) by a participant, beneficiary, or fiduciary, the court in its discretion may allow a reasonable attorney's fee and costs of action to either party.
      (2) In any action under this subchapter by a fiduciary for or on behalf of a plan to enforce section 1145 of this title in which a judgment in favor of the plan is awarded, the court shall award the plan -
        (A) the unpaid contributions,
        (B) interest on the unpaid contributions,
        (C) an amount equal to the greater of -
          (i) interest on the unpaid contributions, or
          (ii) liquidated damages provided for under the plan in an amount not in excess of 20 percent (or such higher percentage as may be permitted under Federal or State law) of the amount determined by the court under subparagraph (A),

        (D) reasonable attorney's fees and costs of the action, to be paid by the defendant, and
        (E) such other legal or equitable relief as the court deems appropriate.

For purposes of this paragraph, interest on unpaid contributions shall be determined by using the rate provided under the plan, or, if none, the rate prescribed under section 6621 of title 26.
    (h) Service upon Secretary of Labor and Secretary of the Treasury
A copy of the complaint in any action under this subchapter by a participant, beneficiary, or fiduciary (other than an action brought by one or more participants or beneficiaries under subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section which is solely for the purpose of recovering benefits due such participants under the terms of the plan) shall be served upon the Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury by certified mail. Either Secretary shall have the right in his discretion to intervene in any action, except that the Secretary of the Treasury may not intervene in any action under part 4 of this subtitle. If the Secretary brings an action under subsection (a) of this section on behalf of a participant or beneficiary, he shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury.
    (i) Administrative assessment of civil penalty
In the case of a transaction prohibited by section 1106 of this title by a party in interest with respect to a plan to which this part applies, the Secretary may assess a civil penalty against such party in interest. The amount of such penalty may not exceed 5 percent of the amount involved in each such transaction (as defined in section 4975(f)(4) of title 26) for each year or part thereof during which the prohibited transaction continues, except that, if the transaction is not corrected (in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe in regulations which shall be consistent with section 4975(f)(5) of title 26) within 90 days after notice from the Secretary (or such longer period as the Secretary may permit), such penalty may be in an amount not more than 100 percent of the amount involved. This subsection shall not apply to a transaction with respect to a plan described in section 4975(e)(1) of title 26.
    (j) Direction and control of litigation by Attorney General
In all civil actions under this subchapter, attorneys appointed by the Secretary may represent the Secretary (except as provided in section 518(a) of title 28), but all such litigation shall be subject to the direction and control of the Attorney General.
    (k) Jurisdiction of actions against the Secretary of Labor
Suits by an administrator, fiduciary, participant, or beneficiary of an employee benefit plan to review a final order of the Secretary, to restrain the Secretary from taking any action contrary to the provisions of this chapter, or to compel him to take action required under this subchapter, may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district where the plan has its principal office, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.
    (l) Civil penalties on violations by fiduciaries
      (1) In the case of -
        (A) any breach of fiduciary responsibility under (or other violation of) part 4 of this subtitle by a fiduciary, or
        (B) any knowing participation in such a breach or violation by any other person, the Secretary shall assess a civil penalty against such fiduciary or other person in an amount equal to 20 percent of the applicable recovery amount.
      (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable recovery amount" means any amount which is recovered from a fiduciary or other person with respect to a breach or violation described in paragraph (1) -
        (A) pursuant to any settlement agreement with the Secretary, or
        (B) ordered by a court to be paid by such fiduciary or other person to a plan or its participants and beneficiaries in a judicial proceeding instituted by the Secretary under subsection
      (a)(2) or (a)(5) of this section.

      (3) The Secretary may, in the Secretary's sole discretion, waive or reduce the penalty under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines in writing that -
        (A) the fiduciary or other person acted reasonably and in good faith, or
        (B) it is reasonable to expect that the fiduciary or other person will not be able to restore all losses to the plan (or to provide the relief ordered pursuant to subsection (a)(9) of this section) without severe financial hardship unless such waiver or reduction is granted.

      (4) The penalty imposed on a fiduciary or other person under this subsection with respect to any transaction shall be reduced by the amount of any penalty or tax imposed on such fiduciary or other person with respect to such transaction under subsection (i) of this section and section 4975 of title 26.
    (m) Penalty for improper distribution
In the case of a distribution to a pension plan participant or beneficiary in violation of section 1056(e) of this title by a plan fiduciary, the Secretary shall assess a penalty against such fiduciary in an amount equal to the value of the distribution. Such penalty shall not exceed $10,000 for each such distribution.

    (!1) So in original. Probably should be "subtitle".

    (!2) See References in Text note below.

Sec. 1133. Claims procedure

In accordance with regulations of the Secretary, every employee benefit plan shall -
        (1) provide adequate notice in writing to any participant or beneficiary whose claim for benefits under the plan has been denied, setting forth the specific reasons for such denial, written in a manner calculated to be understood by the participant, and
        (2) afford a reasonable opportunity to any participant whose claim for benefits has been denied for a full and fair review by the appropriate named fiduciary of the decision denying the claim.

Sec. 1134. Investigative authority

    (a) Investigation and submission of reports, books, etc.
The Secretary shall have the power, in order to determine whether any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this subchapter or any regulation or order thereunder -
        (1) to make an investigation, and in connection therewith to require the submission of reports, books, and records, and the filing of data in support of any information required to be filed with the Secretary under this subchapter, and
        (2) to enter such places, inspect such books and records and question such persons as he may deem necessary to enable him to determine the facts relative to such investigation, if he has reasonable cause to believe there may exist a violation of this subchapter or any rule or regulation issued thereunder or if the entry is pursuant to an agreement with the plan.

The Secretary may make available to any person actually affected by any matter which is the subject of an investigation under this section, and to any department or agency of the United States, information concerning any matter which may be the subject of such investigation; except that any information obtained by the Secretary pursuant to section 6103(g) of title 26 shall be made available only in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
    (b) Frequency of submission of books and records
The Secretary may not under the authority of this section require any plan to submit to the Secretary any books or records of the plan more than once in any 12 month period, unless the Secretary has reasonable cause to believe there may exist a violation of this subchapter or any regulation or order thereunder.
    (c) Other provisions applicable relating to attendance of witnesses and production of books, records, etc.
For the purposes of any investigation provided for in this subchapter, the provisions of sections 49 and 50 of title 15
    (relating to the attendance of witnesses and the production of books, records, and documents) are hereby made applicable (without regard to any limitation in such sections respecting persons, partnerships, banks, or common carriers) to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Secretary or any officers designated by him. To the extent he considers appropriate, the Secretary may delegate his investigative functions under this section with respect to insured banks acting as fiduciaries of employee benefit plans to the appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined in section 1813(q) of title 12).

Sec. 1135. Regulations

Subject to subchapter II of this chapter and section 1029 of this title, the Secretary may prescribe such regulations as he finds necessary or appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. Among other things, such regulations may define accounting, technical and trade terms used in such provisions; may prescribe forms; and may provide for the keeping of books and records, and for the inspection of such books and records (subject to section 1134(a) and (b) of this title).

Sec. 1136. Coordination and responsibility of agencies enforcing this subchapter and related Federal laws

    (a) Coordination with other agencies and departments
In order to avoid unnecessary expense and duplication of functions among Government agencies, the Secretary may make such arrangements or agreements for cooperation or mutual assistance in the performance of his functions under this subchapter and the functions of any such agency as he may find to be practicable and consistent with law. The Secretary may utilize, on a reimbursable or other basis, the facilities or services of any department, agency, or establishment of the United States or of any State or political subdivision of a State, including the services of any of its employees, with the lawful consent of such department, agency, or establishment; and each department, agency, or establishment of the United States is authorized and directed to cooperate with the Secretary and, to the extent permitted by law, to provide such information and facilities as he may request for his assistance in the performance of his functions under this subchapter. The
Attorney General or his representative shall receive from the Secretary for appropriate action such evidence developed in the performance of his functions under this subchapter as may be found to warrant consideration for criminal prosecution under the provisions of this subchapter or other Federal law.
    (b) Responsibility for detecting and investigating civil and criminal violations of this subchapter and related Federal laws
The Secretary shall have the responsibility and authority to detect and investigate and refer, where appropriate, civil and criminal violations related to the provisions of this subchapter and other related Federal laws, including the detection, investigation, and appropriate referrals of related violations of title 18. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preclude other appropriate Federal agencies from detecting and investigating civil and criminal violations of this subchapter and other related Federal laws.
    (c) Coordination of enforcement with States with respect to certain arrangements
A State may enter into an agreement with the Secretary for delegation to the State of some or all of the Secretary's authority under sections 1132 and 1134 of this title to enforce the requirements under part 7 in connection with multiple employer welfare arrangements, providing medical care (within the meaning of section 1191b(a)(2) of this title), which are not group health plans.

Sec. 1137. Administration

      (a) Subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5
    (relating to administrative procedure), shall be applicable to this subchapter.
      (b) Omitted.
      (c) No employee of the Department of Labor or the Department of the Treasury shall administer or enforce this subchapter or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to any employee benefit plan under which he is a participant or beneficiary, any employee organization of which he is a member, or any employer organization in which he has an interest. This subsection does not apply to an employee benefit plan which covers only employees of the United States.

Sec. 1138. Appropriations

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to enable the Secretary to carry out his functions and duties under this chapter.

Sec. 1139. Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances, shall be held invalid, the remainder of this chapter, or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.

Sec. 1140. Interference with protected rights

It shall be unlawful for any person to discharge, fine, suspend, expel, discipline, or discriminate against a participant or beneficiary for exercising any right to which he is entitled under the provisions of an employee benefit plan, this subchapter, section 1201 of this title, or the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act [29 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], or for the purpose of interfering with the attainment of any right to which such participant may become entitled under the plan, this subchapter, or the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act. It shall be unlawful for any person to discharge, fine, suspend, expel, or discriminate against any person because he has given information or has testified or is about to testify in any inquiry or proceeding relating to this chapter or the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act. The provisions of section 1132 of this title shall be applicable in the enforcement of this section.

Sec. 1141. Coercive interference

It shall be unlawful for any person through the use of fraud, force, violence, or threat of the use of force or violence, to restrain, coerce, intimidate, or attempt to restrain, coerce, or intimidate any participant or beneficiary for the purpose of interfering with or preventing the exercise of any right to which he is or may become entitled under the plan, this subchapter, section 1201 of this title, or the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act [29 U.S.C. 301 et seq.]. Any person who willfully violates this section shall be fined $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

Sec. 1142. Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Pension Benefit Plans

    (a) Establishment; membership; terms; appointment and reappointment; vacancies; quorum
      (1) There is hereby established an Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Pension Benefit Plans (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Council") consisting of fifteen members appointed by the Secretary. Not more than eight members of the Council shall be members of the same political party.
      (2) Members shall be persons qualified to appraise the programs instituted under this chapter.
      (3) Of the members appointed, three shall be representatives of employee organizations (at least one of whom shall be representative of any organization members of which are participants in a multiemployer plan); three shall be representatives of employers (at least one of whom shall be representative of employers maintaining or contributing to multi-employer plans); three representatives shall be appointed from the general public, one of whom shall be a person representing those receiving benefits from a pension plan; and there shall be one representative each from the fields of insurance, corporate trust, actuarial counseling, investment counseling, investment management, and the accounting field.
      (4) Members shall serve for terms of three years except that of those first appointed, five shall be appointed for terms of one year, five shall be appointed for terms of two years, and five shall be appointed for terms of three years. A member may be reappointed. A member appointed to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term. A majority of members shall constitute a quorum and action shall be taken only by a majority vote of those present and voting.
    (b) Duties and functions
It shall be the duty of the Council to advise the Secretary with respect to the carrying out of his functions under this chapter and to submit to the Secretary recommendations with respect thereto.
The Council shall meet at least four times each year and at such other times as the Secretary requests. In his annual report submitted pursuant to section 1143(b) (!1) of this title, the Secretary shall include each recommendation which he has received from the Council during the preceding calendar year.

    (c) Executive secretary; secretarial and clerical services
The Secretary shall furnish to the Council an executive secretary and such secretarial, clerical, and other services as are deemed necessary to conduct its business. The Secretary may call upon other agencies of the Government for statistical data, reports, and other information which will assist the Council in the performance of its duties.
    (d) Compensation
      (1) Members of the Council shall each be entitled to receive the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS-18 of the General Schedule for each day (including travel time) during which they are engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Council.
      (2) While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for Council, members of the Council shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703(b) of title 5.
    (e) Termination
Section 14(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (relating to termination) shall not apply to the Council.

Sec. 1143. Research, studies, and reports

    (a) Authorization to undertake research and surveys
      (1) The Secretary is authorized to undertake research and surveys and in connection therewith to collect, compile, analyze and publish data, information, and statistics relating to employee benefit plans, including retirement, deferred compensation, and welfare plans, and types of plans not subject to this chapter.
      (2) The Secretary is authorized and directed to undertake research studies relating to pension plans, including but not limited to (A) the effects of this subchapter upon the provisions and costs of pension plans, (B) the role of private pensions in meeting the economic security needs of the Nation, and (C) the operation of private pension plans including types and levels of benefits, degree of reciprocity or portability, and financial and actuarial characteristics and practices, and methods of encouraging the growth of the private pension system.
      (3) The Secretary may, as he deems appropriate or necessary, undertake other studies relating to employee benefit plans, the matters regulated by this subchapter, and the enforcement procedures provided for under this subchapter.
      (4) The research, surveys, studies, and publications referred to in this subsection may be conducted directly, or indirectly through grant or contract arrangements.
    (b) Omitted
    (c) Cooperation with Congress
The Secretary is authorized and directed to cooperate with the Congress and its appropriate committees, subcommittees, and staff in supplying data and any other information, and personnel and services, required by the Congress in any study, examination, or report by the Congress relating to pension benefit plans established or maintained by States or their political subdivisions.

Sec. 1143a. Studies by Comptroller General

    (1) In general
The Comptroller General of the United States may, pursuant to the request of any Member of Congress, study employee benefit plans, including the effects of such plans on employees, participants, and their beneficiaries.
    (2) Access to books, documents, etc.
For the purpose of conducting studies under this section, the Comptroller General, or any of his duly authorized representatives, shall have access to and the right to examine and copy any books, documents, papers, records, or other recorded information -
        (A) within the possession or control of the administrator, sponsor, or employer of and persons providing services to any employee benefit plan, and
        (B) which the Comptroller General or his representative finds, in his own judgment, pertinent to such study.

The Comptroller General shall not disclose the identity of any individual or employer in making any information obtained under this section available to the public.
    (3) Definitions
For purposes of this section, the terms "employee benefit plan", "participant", "administrator", "beneficiary", "plan sponsor", "employee", and "employer" are defined in section 1002 of this title.
    (4) Effective date
The preceding provisions of this section shall be effective on
April 7, 1986.

Sec. 1144. Other laws

    (a) Supersedure; effective date
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the provisions of this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter shall supersede any and all State laws insofar as they may now or hereafter relate to any employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title and not exempt under section 1003(b) of this title. This section shall take effect on January 1, 1975.
    (b) Construction and application
      (1) This section shall not apply with respect to any cause of action which arose, or any act or omission which occurred, before January 1, 1975.
      (2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to exempt or relieve any person from any law of any State which regulates insurance, banking, or securities.
      (B) Neither an employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title, which is not exempt under section 1003(b) of this title (other than a plan established primarily for the purpose of providing death benefits), nor any trust established under such a plan, shall be deemed to be an insurance company or other insurer, bank, trust company, or investment company or to be engaged in the business of insurance or banking for purposes of any law of any State purporting to regulate insurance companies, insurance contracts, banks, trust companies, or investment companies.
      (3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit use by the Secretary of services or facilities of a State agency as permitted under section 1136 of this title.
      (4) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any generally applicable criminal law of a State.
      (5)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to the Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act
    (Haw. Rev. Stat. Secs. 393-1 through 393-51).
      (B) Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall be construed to exempt from subsection (a) of this section -
        (i) any State tax law relating to employee benefit plans, or
        (ii) any amendment of the Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act enacted after September 2, 1974, to the extent it provides for more than the effective administration of such Act as in effect on such date.

      (C) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), parts 1 and 4 of this subtitle, and the preceding sections of this part to the extent they govern matters which are governed by the provisions of such parts 1 and 4, shall supersede the Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act
    (as in effect on or after January 14, 1983), but the Secretary may enter into cooperative arrangements under this paragraph and section 1136 of this title with officials of the State of Hawaii to assist them in effectuating the policies of provisions of such Act which are superseded by such parts 1 and 4 and the preceding sections of this part.
      (6)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section -
        (i) in the case of an employee welfare benefit plan which is a multiple employer welfare arrangement and is fully insured (or which is a multiple employer welfare arrangement subject to an exemption under subparagraph (B)), any law of any State which regulates insurance may apply to such arrangement to the extent that such law provides -
          (I) standards, requiring the maintenance of specified levels of reserves and specified levels of contributions, which any such plan, or any trust established under such a plan, must meet in order to be considered under such law able to pay benefits in full when due, and
          (II) provisions to enforce such standards, and

        (ii) in the case of any other employee welfare benefit plan which is a multiple employer welfare arrangement, in addition to this subchapter, any law of any State which regulates insurance may apply to the extent not inconsistent with the preceding sections of this subchapter.

      (B) The Secretary may, under regulations which may be prescribed by the Secretary, exempt from subparagraph (A)(ii), individually or by class, multiple employer welfare arrangements which are not fully insured. Any such exemption may be granted with respect to any arrangement or class of arrangements only if such arrangement or each arrangement which is a member of such class meets the requirements of section 1002(1) and section 1003 of this title necessary to be considered an employee welfare benefit plan to which this subchapter applies.
      (C) Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall affect the manner or extent to which the provisions of this subchapter apply to an employee welfare benefit plan which is not a multiple employer welfare arrangement and which is a plan, fund, or program participating in, subscribing to, or otherwise using a multiple employer welfare arrangement to fund or administer benefits to such plan's participants and beneficiaries.
      (D) For purposes of this paragraph, a multiple employer welfare arrangement shall be considered fully insured only if the terms of the arrangement provide for benefits the amount of all of which the Secretary determines are guaranteed under a contract, or policy of insurance, issued by an insurance company, insurance service, or insurance organization, qualified to conduct business in a State.
      (7) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to qualified domestic relations orders (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title), qualified medical child support orders (within the meaning of section 1169(a)(2)(A) of this title), and the provisions of law referred to in section 1169(a)(2)(B)(ii) of this title to the extent they apply to qualified medical child support orders.
      (8) Subsection (a) of this section shall not be construed to preclude any State cause of action -
        (A) with respect to which the State exercises its acquired rights under section 1169(b)(3) of this title with respect to a group health plan (as defined in section 1167(1) of this title), or
        (B) for recoupment of payment with respect to items or services pursuant to a State plan for medical assistance approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] which would not have been payable if such acquired rights had been executed before payment with respect to such items or services by the group health plan.

      (9) For additional provisions relating to group health plans, see section 1191 of this title.
    (c) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
        (1) The term "State law" includes all laws, decisions, rules, regulations, or other State action having the effect of law, of any State. A law of the United States applicable only to the District of Columbia shall be treated as a State law rather than a law of the United States.
        (2) The term "State" includes a State, any political subdivisions thereof, or any agency or instrumentality of either, which purports to regulate, directly or indirectly, the terms and conditions of employee benefit plans covered by this subchapter.
    (d) Alteration, amendment, modification, invalidation, impairment, or supersedure of any law of the United States prohibited Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to alter, amend, modify, invalidate, impair, or supersede any law of the United States (except as provided in sections 1031 and 1137(c) of this title) or any rule or regulation issued under any such law.

Sec. 1144a. Clarification of church welfare plan status under State insurance law

    (a) In general
For purposes of determining the status of a church plan that is a welfare plan under provisions of a State insurance law described in subsection (b) of this section, such a church plan (and any trust under such plan) shall be deemed to be a plan sponsored by a single employer that reimburses costs from general church assets, or purchases insurance coverage with general church assets, or both.
    (b) State insurance law
A State insurance law described in this subsection is a law that -
        (1) requires a church plan, or an organization described in section 414(e)(3)(A) of title 26 and section 1002(33)(C)(i) of this title to the extent that it is administering or funding such a plan, to be licensed; or
        (2) relates solely to the solvency or insolvency of a church plan (including participation in State guaranty funds and associations).
    (c) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
      (1) Church plan
The term "church plan" has the meaning given such term by section 414(e) of title 26 and section 1002(33) of this title.
      (2) Reimburses costs from general church assets
The term "reimburses costs from general church assets" means engaging in an activity that is not the spreading of risk solely for the purposes of the provisions of State insurance laws described in subsection (b) of this section.
      (3) Welfare plan
The term "welfare plan" -
          (A) means any church plan to the extent that such plan provides medical, surgical, or hospital care or benefits, or benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability, death or unemployment, or vacation benefits, apprenticeship or other training programs, or day care centers, scholarship funds, or prepaid legal services; and
          (B) does not include any entity, such as a health insurance issuer described in section 9832(b)(2) of title 26 or a health maintenance organization described in section 9832(b)(3) of title 26, or any other organization that does business with the church plan or organization sponsoring or maintaining such a plan.
    (d) Enforcement authority Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for purposes of enforcing provisions of State insurance laws that apply to a church plan that is a welfare plan, the church plan shall be subject to State enforcement as if the church plan were an insurer licensed by the State.
    (e) Application of section
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the application of this section is limited to determining the status of a church plan that is a welfare plan under the provisions of State insurance laws described in subsection (b) of this section. This section shall not otherwise be construed to recharacterize the status, or modify or affect the rights, of any plan participant or beneficiary, including participants or beneficiaries who make plan contributions.

Sec. 1145. Delinquent contributions

Every employer who is obligated to make contributions to a multiemployer plan under the terms of the plan or under the terms of a collectively bargained agreement shall, to the extent not inconsistent with law, make such contributions in accordance with the terms and conditions of such plan or such agreement.

Sec. 1146. Outreach to promote retirement income savings

    (a) In general
The Secretary shall maintain an ongoing program of outreach to the public designed to effectively promote retirement income savings by the public.
    (b) Methods
The Secretary shall carry out the requirements of subsection (a) of this section by means which shall ensure effective communication to the public, including publication of public service announcements, public meetings, creation of educational materials, and establishment of a site on the Internet.
    (c) Information to be made available
The information to be made available by the Secretary as part of the program of outreach required under subsection (a) of this section shall include the following:
        (1) a description of the vehicles currently available to individuals and employers for creating and maintaining retirement income savings, specifically including information explaining to employers, in simple terms, the characteristics and operation of the different retirement savings vehicles, including the steps to establish each such vehicle; and
        (2) information regarding matters relevant to establishing retirement income savings, such as -
          (A) the forms of retirement income savings;
          (B) the concept of compound interest;
          (C) the importance of commencing savings early in life;
          (D) savings principles;
          (E) the importance of prudence and diversification in investing;
          (F) the importance of the timing of investments; and
          (G) the impact on retirement savings of life's uncertainties, such as living beyond one's life expectancy.
    (d) Establishment of site on Internet
The Secretary shall establish a permanent site on the Internet concerning retirement income savings. The site shall contain at least the following information:
        (1) a means for individuals to calculate their estimated retirement savings needs, based on their retirement income goal as a percentage of their preretirement income;
        (2) a description in simple terms of the common types of retirement income savings arrangements available to both individuals and employers (specifically including small employers), including information on the amount of money that can be placed into a given vehicle, the tax treatment of the money, the amount of accumulation possible through different typical investment options and interest rate projections, and a directory of resources of more descriptive information;
        (3) materials explaining to employers in simple terms, the characteristics and operation of the different retirement savings arrangements for their workers and what the basic legal requirements are under this chapter and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, including the steps to establish each such arrangement;
        (4) copies of all educational materials developed by the Department of Labor, and by other Federal agencies in consultation with such Department, to promote retirement income savings by workers and employers; and
        (5) links to other sites maintained on the Internet by governmental agencies and nonprofit organizations that provide additional detail on retirement income savings arrangements and related topics on savings or investing.
    (e) Coordination
The Secretary shall coordinate the outreach program under this section with similar efforts undertaken by other public and private entities.

Sec. 1147. National Summit on Retirement Savings

    (a) Authority to call Summit Not later than July 15, 1998, the President shall convene a National Summit on Retirement Income Savings at the White House, to be co-hosted by the President and the Speaker and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives and the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the Senate. Such a National Summit shall be convened thereafter in 2001 and 2005 on or after September 1 of each year involved. Such a National Summit shall -
        (1) advance the public's knowledge and understanding of retirement savings and its critical importance to the future well-being of American workers and their families;
        (2) facilitate the development of a broad-based, public education program to encourage and enhance individual commitment to a personal retirement savings strategy;
        (3) develop recommendations for additional research, reforms, and actions in the field of private pensions and individual retirement savings; and
        (4) disseminate the report of, and information obtained by, the National Summit and exhibit materials and works of the National Summit.
    (b) Planning and direction
The National Summit shall be planned and conducted under the direction of the Secretary, in consultation with, and with the assistance of, the heads of such other Federal departments and agencies as the President may designate. Such assistance may include the assignment of personnel. The Secretary shall, in planning and conducting the National Summit, consult with the congressional leaders specified in subsection (e)(2) of this section. The Secretary shall also, in carrying out the Secretary's duties under this subsection, consult and coordinate with at least one organization made up of private sector businesses and associations partnered with Government entities to promote long-term financial security in retirement through savings.
    (c) Purpose of National Summit
The purpose of the National Summit shall be -
        (1) to increase the public awareness of the value of personal savings for retirement;
        (2) to advance the public's knowledge and understanding of retirement savings and its critical importance to the future well-being of American workers and their families;
        (3) to facilitate the development of a broad-based, public education program to encourage and enhance individual commitment to a personal retirement savings strategy;
        (4) to identify the problems workers have in setting aside adequate savings for retirement;
        (5) to identify the barriers which employers, especially small employers, face in assisting their workers in accumulating retirement savings;
        (6) to examine the impact and effectiveness of individual employers to promote personal savings for retirement among their workers and to promote participation in company savings options;
        (7) to examine the impact and effectiveness of government programs at the Federal, State, and local levels to educate the public about, and to encourage, retirement income savings;
        (8) to develop such specific and comprehensive recommendations for the legislative and executive branches of the Government and for private sector action as may be appropriate for promoting private pensions and individual retirement savings; and
        (9) to develop recommendations for the coordination of Federal, State, and local retirement income savings initiatives among the Federal, State, and local levels of government and for the coordination of such initiatives.
    (d) Scope of National Summit
The scope of the National Summit shall consist of issues relating to individual and employer-based retirement savings and shall not include issues relating to the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance program under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.].
    (e) National Summit participants
      (1) In general To carry out the purposes of the National Summit, the National Summit shall bring together -
          (A) professionals and other individuals working in the fields of employee benefits and retirement savings;
          (B) Members of Congress and officials in the executive branch;
          (C) representatives of State and local governments;
          (D) representatives of private sector institutions, including individual employers, concerned about promoting the issue of retirement savings and facilitating savings among American workers; and
          (E) representatives of the general public.
      (2) Statutorily required participation
The participants in the National Summit shall include the following individuals or their designees:
          (A) the Speaker and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives;
          (B) the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader of the
Senate;
          (C) the Chairman and ranking Member of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives;
          (D) the Chairman and ranking Member of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate;
          (E) the Chairman and ranking Member of the Special Committee on Aging of the Senate;
          (F) the Chairman and ranking Member of the Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education of the Senate and House of Representatives; and
          (G) the parties referred to in subsection (b) of this section.
      (3) Additional participants
        (A) In general
There shall be not more than 200 additional participants. Of such additional participants -
            (i) one-half shall be appointed by the President, in consultation with the elected leaders of the President's party in Congress (either the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, and either the Majority Leader or the Minority Leader of the Senate; (!1) and

            (ii) one-half shall be appointed by the elected leaders of Congress of the party to which the President does not belong
          (one-half of that allotment to be appointed by either the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, and one-half of that allotment to be appointed by either the Majority Leader or the Minority Leader of the Senate).
        (B) Appointment requirements
The additional participants described in subparagraph (A) shall be -
            (i) appointed not later than January 31, 1998;
            (ii) selected without regard to political affiliation or past partisan activity; and
            (iii) representative of the diversity of thought in the fields of employee benefits and retirement income savings.
      (4) Presiding officers
The National Summit shall be presided over equally by representatives of the executive and legislative branches.
    (f) National Summit administration
      (1) Administration
In administering this section, the Secretary shall -
          (A) request the cooperation and assistance of such other Federal departments and agencies and other parties referred to in subsection (b) of this section as may be appropriate in the carrying out of this section;
          (B) furnish all reasonable assistance to State agencies, area agencies, and other appropriate organizations to enable them to organize and conduct conferences in conjunction with the National Summit;
          (C) make available for public comment a proposed agenda for the National Summit that reflects to the greatest extent possible the purposes for the National Summit set out in this section;
          (D) prepare and make available background materials for the use of participants in the National Summit that the Secretary considers necessary; and
          (E) appoint and fix the pay of such additional personnel as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section without regard to provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.
      (2) Duties
The Secretary shall, in carrying out the responsibilities and functions of the Secretary under this section, and as part of the National Summit, ensure that -
          (A) the National Summit shall be conducted in a manner that ensures broad participation of Federal, State, and local agencies and private organizations, professionals, and others involved in retirement income savings and provides a strong basis for assistance to be provided under paragraph (1)(B);
          (B) the agenda prepared under paragraph (1)(C) for the National Summit is published in the Federal Register; and
          (C) the personnel appointed under paragraph (1)(E) shall be fairly balanced in terms of points of views represented and shall be appointed without regard to political affiliation or previous partisan activities.
      (3) Nonapplication of FACA
The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the National Summit.
    (g) Report
The Secretary shall prepare a report describing the activities of the National Summit and shall submit the report to the President, the Speaker and Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, the Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, and the chief executive officers of the States not later than 90 days after the date on which the National Summit is adjourned.
    (h) "State" defined
For purposes of this section, the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and any other territory or possession of the United States.
    (i) Authorization of appropriations
      (1) In general
There is authorized to be appropriated for fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1997, such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.
      (2) Authorization to accept private contributions
In order to facilitate the National Summit as a public-private partnership, the Secretary may accept private contributions, in the form of money, supplies, or services, to defray the costs of the National Summit.
    (j) Financial obligation for fiscal year 1998
The financial obligation for the Department of Labor for fiscal year 1998 shall not exceed the lesser of -
        (1) one-half of the costs of the National Summit; or
        (2) $250,000.

The private sector organization described in subsection (b) of this section and contracted with by the Secretary shall be obligated for the balance of the cost of the National Summit.
    (k) Contracts
The Secretary may enter into contracts to carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this section. The Secretary shall enter into a contract on a sole-source basis to ensure the timely completion of the National Summit in fiscal year 1998.

    (!1) So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the semicolon.

Sec. 1148. Authority to postpone certain deadlines by reason of Presidentially declared disaster or terroristic or military actions

In the case of a pension or other employee benefit plan, or any sponsor, administrator, participant, beneficiary, or other person with respect to such plan, affected by a Presidentially declared disaster (as defined in section 1033(h)(3) of title 26) or a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692(c)(2) of such title), the Secretary may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, prescribe, by notice or otherwise, a period of up to 1 year which may be disregarded in determining the date by which any action is required or permitted to be completed under this chapter. No plan shall be treated as failing to be operated in accordance with the terms of the plan solely as the result of disregarding any period by reason of the preceding sentence.