Federal Employment Laws

Taxpayers Against Fraud - False Claims Acts for the Federal Government and Various States

The FCA is a powerful tool for uncovering fraud and abuse of government programs. One reason for this is the FCA's qui tam provisions, which provide a mechanism for private citizens and their attorneys to blow the whistle on private parties who defraud government programs.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 - ADEA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 14

The ADEA prohibits employment discrimination nationwide based on age with respect to employees 40 years of age or older. The ADEA also addresses the difficulty older workers face in obtaining new employment after being displaced from their jobs, arbitrary age limits.FACTS ABOUT THE ADEA

Federal Employment Compensation Act - FECA - 5 U.S. Code Chapter 81

The Federal Employees’ Compensation Act (FECA), 5 USC Chapter 81, provides compensation benefits to Federal employees for work-related injuries or illnesses, and to their surviving dependents if a work-related injury or illness results in the employee’s death. The FECA is administered by the Department of Labor, Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs (OWCP). The 12 OWCP district offices adjudicate the claims and pay benefits, and the costs of those benefits are charged back to the employing agency.

Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 - VEVRAA - 38 US Code Chapter 42 §4211-4215

The Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act (VEVRAA) requires covered federal government contractors and subcontractors to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment specified categories of veterans protected by the Act and prohibits discrimination against such veterans. In addition, VEVRAA requires contractors and subcontractors to list their employment openings with the appropriate employment service delivery system, and that covered veterans receive priority in referral to such openings.

Equal Pay Act of 1963 - EPA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 8 § 206(d)

The Equal Pay Act (part of the Fair Labor Standards Act) prohibits wage discrimination by employers and labor organizations based solely on sex.

Vocational Rehabilitation and Other Rehabilitation Services of 1973 - 29 US Code Chapter 16

The purpose of the Vocational Rehabilitation and Other Rehabilitation Services Act is to empower individuals with disabilities to maximize employment, economic self-sufficiency, independence, and inclusion and integration into society.29 USC CHAPTER 16 - VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND OTHER REHABILITATION SERVICES


US Constitution - 5th and 14th Amendments

The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution limit the power of the federal and state governments to discriminate. The private sector is not directly constrained by the Constitution.

Civil Rights Act of 1964 - CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21

Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, sex, and national origin. Retaliation is also prohibited by Title VII against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available to Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to jury trial.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 - ADA - 42 U.S. Code Chapter 126

The Americans with Disabilities Act, also known as the ADA, is the Federal Law that prohibits Employment Discrimination on the basis of a person's disability. In addition to its impact on employment discrimination, the ADA also requires that companies provide accommodations both to their employees and in some cases the public, such as requiring doors to be at least three feet wide so that a wheelchair can pass. The ADA prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by employers, employment agencies, labor organizations, and joint labor management committees.

Employee Retirement Income Security Act - ERISA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 18





Family and Medical Leave Act - FMLA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 28

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides a means for employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by taking unpaid leave for certain reasons. The Act is intended to promote the stability and economic security of families as well as the nation's interest in preserving the integrity of families. The FMLA applies to any employer in the private sector who engages in commerce, or in any industry or activity affecting commerce, and who has 50 or more employees each working day during at least 20 calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year. The law covers all public agencies (state and local governments) and local education agencies (schools, whether public or private). These employers do not need to meet the "50 employee" test. Title II of FMLA covers most federal employees, who are subject to regulations issued by the Office of Personnel Management. To be eligible for FMLA leave, an individual must (1) be employed by a covered employer and work at a worksite within 75 miles of which that employer employs at least 50 people; (2) have worked at least 12 months (which do not have to be consecutive) for the employer; and (3) have worked at least 1,250 hours during the 12 months immediately before the date FMLA leave begins. The FMLA provides an entitlement of up to 12 weeks of job-protected, unpaid leave during any 12-month period.

Employee Polygraph Protection - EPP - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 22

The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA) applies to most private employers. The law does not cover federal, state, and local governments. The EPPA prohibits most private employers from using lie detector tests, either for pre-employment screening or during the course of employment. Employers generally may not require or request any employee or job applicant to take a lie detector test, or discharge, discipline, or discriminate against an employee or job applicant for refusing to take a test or for exercising other rights under the Act. Employers may not use or inquire about the results of a lie detector test or discharge or discriminate against an employee or job applicant on the basis of the results of a test, or for filing a complaint, or for participating in a proceeding under the Act. Subject to restrictions, the Act permits polygraph (a type of lie detector) tests to be administered to certain job applicants of security service firms (armored car, alarm, and guard) and of pharmaceutical manufacturers, distributors, and dispensers. Subject to restrictions, the Act also permits polygraph testing of certain employees of private firms who are reasonably suspected of involvement in a workplace incident (theft, embezzlement, etc.) that resulted in specific economic loss or injury to the employer. Where polygraph examinations are allowed, they are subject to strict standards for the conduct of the test, including the pretest, testing, and post-testing phases. An examiner must be licensed and bonded or have professional liability coverage. The Act strictly limits the disclosure of information obtained during a polygraph test. The EPPA provides that employees have a right to employment opportunities without being subjected to lie detector tests, unless a specific exemption applies. The Act also provides employees the right to file a lawsuit for violations of the Act. In addition, the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor's Employment Standards Administration accepts complaints of alleged EPPA violations.

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection - MSAWP - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 20

The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) safeguards most migrant and seasonal agricultural workers in their interactions with farm labor contractors, agricultural employers, agricultural associations, and providers of migrant housing. However, some farm labor contractors, agricultural employers, agricultural associations, and providers of migrant housing are exempt from MSPA under limited circumstances. The MSPA requires farm labor contractors, agricultural employers, and agricultural associations who recruit, solicit, hire, employ, furnish, transport, or house agricultural workers, as well as providers of migrant housing, to meet certain minimum requirements in their dealings with migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

Occupational Safety and Health Act - OSHA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 15

In general, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH ACT) covers all employers and their employees in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and other U.S. territories. Coverage is provided either directly by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) or by an OSHA-approved state job safety and health plan. Employees of the U.S. Postal Service also are covered. The Act assigns OSHA two regulatory functions: setting standards and conducting inspections to ensure that employers are providing safe and healthful workplaces. OSHA standards may require that employers adopt certain practices, means, methods, or processes reasonably necessary and appropriate to protect workers on the job. Employers must become familiar with the standards applicable to their establishments and eliminate hazards.

Fair Labor Standards Act - FLSA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 8

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) establishes standards for minimum wages, overtime pay, record keeping, and child labor. The Act applies to enterprises with employees who engage in interstate commerce, produce goods for interstate commerce, or handle, sell, or work on goods or materials that have been moved in or produced for interstate commerce.

Education Amendments of 1972 - Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, now known as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author, but more commonly known simply as Title IX, is a United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." Although the most prominent "public face" of Title IX is its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no reference to athletics.

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